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Sale 1211 — The William H. Gross Collection: United States Postal History

Sale Date — Tuesday-Wednesday, 29-30 October, 2019

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*A buyer’s premium of 18% of the winning bid will be added as part of the total purchase price on all lots in this sale. Buyers are responsible for applicable sales tax, customs duty and any other prescribed charges. By placing a bid you agree to the terms and conditions of sale.

Category — 1856 5¢ Red Brown

Lot
Symbol
Photo/Description
Cat./Est. Value
Realized
214°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 214, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, One of two recorded covers with the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate paying the registration fee

5¢ Red Brown (12), three full to huge margins, miscut vertically into left but with huge part of adjoining stamp at right, rich color, trivial corner crease, used with 3¢ Dull Red, Type II (11A), full margin at right, close to slightly in on other sides, both stamps tied by bold strikes of "Albany N.Y. Nov. 7" (ca. 1856) circular datestamp on light buff over to Worcester Mass., manuscript "204" registration number, small edge faults and creases, Fine, the 5¢ registration fee effective July 1, 1855, was supposed to be paid in cash, but as this cover demonstrates, it was sometimes prepaid with a stamp, only two such 5¢ 1856 covers recorded, ex Peltz, Mueller, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Hill book (p. 7), "Registration," Alexander (Chronicle 139), Frajola-Mayer book (p. 41)

E. 2,000-3,000
Future Sale
215°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 215, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The only recorded double 10¢ rate cover with a 3¢ 1851 and 5¢ 1856 Imperforate combination

5¢ Red Brown (12), full to large margins, rich color, used with two pairs and single 3¢ Dull Red, Type I (11), three 3¢ stamps have faults, tied by four strikes of "Buffalo N.Y. Mar. 18" (ca. 1857) rimless circular datestamp on cover to San Francisco, double 10¢ rate, small repaired tear at upper right, overall appearance is Fine, one of two recorded double 10¢ domestic rate covers with the 5¢ 1856 Issue--the other has two pairs--ex Neinken, Davidson, Beals, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer book (p. 39), with 1988 P.F. certificate

E. 1,500-2,000
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216°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 216, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, An extraordinary eight-times 3¢ domestic rate cover with a unique mixed-issue franking of four 5¢ 1856 Imperforate stamps and the 1857 Perforated Issue

5¢ Red Brown (12), vertical pair and two singles, full to large margins except one single slightly in at top, used with 1¢ Blue, Type V (24), centerline margin at right, and 3¢ Dull Red, Type III (26), cancelled and tied together by matching grids, "Philadelphia Pa. Mar. 25" circular datestamp on normal-size envelope to Amanda K. Miller at 20 West 16th Street in New York City

Very Fine appearance with minor edge improvements and repaired cover tear through 1¢; two 5¢ stamps at right have tiny corner creases and one with small tear.

This cover was prepaid 24¢ for the eight-times 3¢ per half ounce domestic rate, thus weighing between 3.5 and 4 ounces. Since it is a small envelope, the enclosure must have been something other than paper, possibly a photographic tintype or daguerreotype. Section 15 of the September 1854 instructions issued by Postmaster General James Campbell (Appendix, page 161) states, "Daguerreotypes when sent in the mail should be rated and charged with letter postage by weight." Amanda K. Miller, who died in 1895, was a Quaker and had been married to Dr. Charles Miller. The address on this cover, 20 West 16th Street, is a landmarked building known as the Emma Stebbins House.

Ex Henry W. Hill, Paul C. Rohloff, Ryohei Ishikawa, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Signed by Stanley B. Ashbrook and illustrated in his Special Service, #73, p. 592, photo 292, and Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 37). With 1993 P.F. certificate.

E. 5,000-7,500
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217°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 217, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The earliest documented use of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate Issue--an important classic United States cover in wonderful condition

5¢ Red Brown (12), large margins all around, tied by bold "Philadelphia Pa. Mar. 24" (1856) circular datestamp on folded letter to Halifax, Nova Scotia, sender's ship-name directive "pr 'Arabia' via Boston" and carried on the Cunarder Arabia, departing Boston on March 26, bold "Boston Br. Pkt. Mar. 26" transit datestamp on back, "UD. STATES/HALIFAX/MR 27/1856" receiving backstamp, "5" pence due handstamp for Nova Scotia inland postage, internal dateline of letter is misdated March 26

Extremely Fine; light toning along vertical file fold does not affect stamp.

The 5¢ 1856 Issue was approved and ordered by the U.S. Post Office Department on October 24, 1855 (Travers papers). Secondary sources, using government records which apparently no longer exist, reported that sometime during the first week of January 1856 the 5¢ stamps were printed and in the hands of Jesse Johnson, the stamp agent in Philadelphia, where Toppan Carpenter was located. Despite this delivery date, the March 24, 1856, cover offered here has been the longstanding earliest documented date of use. The earliest documented use from the New Orleans post office, a high-volume distributor of 5¢ stamps, is July 20, 1856, which is further evidence of delayed release. We agree with the theory presented in the Frajola-Mayer book (pages 2-3) that because the new 5¢ issue was evidently never officially announced to postmasters, there was a months-long delay before the stamps were ordered by any post offices and sold to the public.

Ex Theodore Gore, Mortimer L. Neinken, Louis Grunin, Ryohei Ishikawa and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Ashbrook's Special Service, #52, p. 406, photo 213, Hill, The United States Five Cent Stamps of 1856-1861 (p. 5), Brookman, United States Postage Stamps of the 19th Century, Vol. I (p. 153), and Rose, Classic United States Imperforate Stamps (p. 68).

E. 15,000-20,000
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218°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 218, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Extremely Fine Gem pair of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate Issue on an attractive cover-- one of the finest quality multiples of this issue known on or off cover

5¢ Red Brown (12), horizontal pair with left interpane margin with centerline (Positions 31-32R or 61-62R), gigantic top and bottom margins showing parts of adjoining stamps below, full at right, Dark Red Brown with deep rich color and proof-like impression, tied by neat "Buffalo N.Y. May 28" (1857) rimless circular datestamp on yellow cover to Richmond Hill, Canada West, faint red "U.STATES/PAID/6d" cross-border exchange office handstamp, red receiving backstamp (May 28, 1857)

Extremely Fine Gem pair; small sealed puncture tear in cover not affecting stamps.

The finest quality multiples of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate on cover are the Caspary pair with full bottom sheet margin and this left sheet margin pair with centerline, also ex Caspary. In our 1975 Rarities of the World sale, this cover realized $6,250.

Ex Alfred H. Caspary and "Sevenoaks" (Sale 799, lot 106, where acquired by Mr. Gross).

E. 10,000-15,000
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219°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 219, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Choice 5¢ 1856 Imperforate pair cancelled in red on a small and attractive cover to Canada

5¢ Red Brown (12), horizontal pair, huge top margin with parts of adjoining stamps, left stamp has full to large margins, right stamp ample to clear, gorgeous intense color and impression, lightly struck red grid cancels, matching "Providence R.I. Jan. 27" (ca. 1857) circular datestamp and "PAID" handstamp on small yellow cover to Toronto, Canada, red "U.STATES/PAID/6d" cross-border exchange office handstamp, Toronto receiving backstamp, small repair at top left corner where slightly rounded from opening, still Very Fine, ex Knapp and Hackmey

E. 1,000-1,500
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220°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 220, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A unique combination of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate, 1¢ Type IIIa and 3¢ 1857 Perforated Issues

5¢ Red Brown (12), A Relief (top row), large margins including top left corner sheet margins, rich color, used with 1¢ Blue, Type IIIa (22) pair, Plate 4, and 3¢ Dull Red, Type III (26), tied together by single clear strike of "Palatine Ill. Aug. 13" (1858) circular datestamp with second strike on buff cover to Forestville, Canada West, red "U.STATES" and "PAID 10" Detroit cross-border exchange office handstamps, Simcoe transit and Forestville receiving backstamps (August 26, 1858), 1¢ pair has trimmed perfs and tiny tear at right, 3¢ top left corner repaired, 5¢ tiny vertical margin tear, small repair in top right corner of cover, overall appearance Very Fine, a remarkable mixed-issue franking for the 10¢ rate to Canada, ex Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer book (p. 88), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 5,000-7,500
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221°
 
Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 221, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A unique use of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate on mail originating in British North America and one of two recorded uses to Great Britain--a spectacular and important piece of 19th century transatlantic mail

5¢ Red Brown (12), two horizontal pairs, mostly full to large margins except just in at top of one pair, used with 1¢ Blue, Type II (7) and 3¢ Dull Red, Type I (11), each slightly cut in, tied by four strikes of "PAID" handstamp and "Colonial Express Mail St. John. N.B. July 6" (1857) steamboat letter carrier's circular datestamp on front only (no flaps) from St. John, New Brunswick, to Glasgow, Scotland, via Boston and New York, sender's route directive "via 'New York'", red "19" credit handstamp, red "America Liverpool Paid JY 17 57A" transit datestamp ties 1¢ and 3¢ stamps

Very Fine appearance; 3¢ small fault at bottom, left stamp in 5¢ pair at bottom creased by file fold, lifted and hinged in place--these minor flaws and lack of backflaps not detracting from the item's impressive character.

This piece of mail to Scotland was written from St. John in the British Maritime Province of New Brunswick. Rather than put it into the St. John post office, it was brought to the dock and given to the official steamboat letter carrier on board the steamer Admiral, bound for Boston on Monday, July 6, 1857. From Boston it was carried by train to New York for the July 8 sailing of the Cunard steamer Persia, which arrived at Liverpool on July 17.

Illustrated and listed as one of five recorded loose letters to Great Britain by St. John express mail in an article by David D'Alessandris, "St. John, New Brunswick, Express Mail to Great Britain," Chronicle 228. D'Alessandris states: "Loose letters sent to Great Britain by the St. John express mail route are a fascinating group of covers, not only for the remarkable adhesive frankings on two of them, but also for their postal rates." This item is incorrectly year-dated 1858 in both Frajola-Mayer book and D'Alessandris article--the "57" year in the Liverpool datestamp is clear. It is the earliest of the five listed in the D'Alessandris census.

Ex A. Leon Adutt (J. C. Morgenthau sale, 6/26-27/1923, lot 120), Dale-Lichtenstein, John E. duPont, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Ashbrook's Special Service, #24, pp. 170-171, photo 81, and Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 139).

E. 20,000-30,000
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222°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 222, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A fabulous 5¢ 1856 Imperforate corner sheet-margin stamp used on cover to France

5¢ Red Brown (12), huge margins including bottom right corner sheet margins and part of adjoining stamp at top, rich color, tied by red grid cancel and black "New-York Jul. 15" (1856) circular datestamp on blue folded letter and printed circular to Trie sur Baise, France, red "New-York Br. Pkt. Jul 13" circular datestamp, sent to Boston for the Cunard Canada sailing (departing July 16, 1856, arriving Liverpool July 26), red British transit datestamp (July 28) overstruck with "2" oval grid, Calais arrival datestamp (July 28), re-rated in manuscript from "13" to "26" decimes due (weight over 7.5 grams), "26" decimes handstamp also ties stamp, receiving backstamp, Extremely Fine, a magnificent corner-margin 5¢ 1856 Imperforate stamp on cover--one of the two or three finest single frankings extant--ex Krug, Klein, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer book (p. 80), signed Ashbrook, with 2005 P.F. certificate

E. 5,000-7,500
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223°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 223, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Choice 5¢ 1856 Imperforate stamp on British Open Mail cover to France

5¢ Red Brown (12), ample even margins, bright color, tied by "New Orleans La. Nov. 2" (1856) circular datestamp on blue folded letter to Marseilles, France, red "New-York Br. Pkt. Nov. 12" circular datestamp, carried on Cunarder Asia (departing November 12, 1856, arriving Liverpool November 24), Calais arrival datestamp (November 24), "13" decimes due handstamp, Very Fine, an attractive cover with a four-margin 5¢ 1856 stamp paying the shore-to-ship rate, ex Haas

E. 750-1,000
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224°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 224, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, An extremely rare 5¢ 1856 Imperforate franking for American Packet service to France

5¢ Red Brown (12), four singles, margins vary from huge to barely touched, intense shade, used with 1¢ Blue, Type II (7), intense shade and mottling characteristic of Plate 3, large margins to slightly in at right, tied by light strikes of "New Orleans La. Nov. 29" (1856) circular datestamp on greenish gray folded cover to Paris, France, Loison & Co. New Orleans blue oval handstamp, red "New-York Am. Pkt. Dec. 12" circular datestamp--carried on the Havre Line Arago, departing New York on December 13, 1856, and arriving at Havre on December 27--red "Outre-Mer Le Havre 27 Dec. 56" arrival datestamp for incoming ship (non-contract) mail, manuscript "12" decimes due (7.5-15 grams), French transit backstamps including Paris receiving datestamp (December 27)

Very Fine; lightened stains around stamps, 1¢ stamp moved slightly to the right to reveal 5¢ margins.

This cover is an extremely rare example of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate used to make up the American Packet rate to France. Only five fully prepaid 5¢ 1856 covers to France by American Packet are recorded, three of which are offered in this sale (lots 224-226).

There were two American Packet services to France available: Collins Line via England--21¢ per half-ounce rate with 8 decimes per 7.5 grams due for British transit and French inland postage; and Havre Line direct to France--20¢ per half-ounce rate with 6 decimes per 7.5 grams due for French inland postage. The two ships of the Havre Line, Fulton and Arago, made only 12 trips during the one-year period from March 1856 (earliest use of 5¢ 1856) until the new 15¢ U.S.-France treaty rate was implemented in April 1857.

Two of the five recorded prepaid American Packet covers were carried by the Collins Line via England. They are both correctly prepaid 21¢--one has a three-color franking (lot 225 in this sale), and the other has a strip of 5¢ and 1¢ single (ex Hargest and Beane; illustrated in Hargest book, p. 53).

Three other prepaid covers were carried by the Havre Line direct to France. Only one has the correct amount of postage for the 20¢ rate (ex Walske, Sale 1119, lot 536). The other two are overpaid 1¢ (the cover offered here and lot 226 in this sale). It is believed that the practice of prepaying the slightly higher rate was a way to ensure that a letter would be sufficiently prepaid for the earliest available sailing from New York. The cover offered here is an example of a letter prepaid 21¢ for Collins Line service via England, but sent by the Havre Line direct to France (20¢ rate).

Ex Alfred H. Caspary, Philip G. Rust, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 58). With 2005 P.F. certificate stating "genuine usage."

E. 10,000-15,000
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225°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 225, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A unique 1851-56 Issue franking for American Packet service to France and the earliest transatlantic use of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate stamp

5¢ Red Brown (12), full margins to clear at bottom, bright color, used with two 3¢ Dull Red, Type I (11) and 10¢ Green, Type III (15), one 3¢ with large margins to slightly in, other cut in, 10¢ large margins to in at bottom, tied by red segmented grid cancels, matching "New Bedford Mass. Paid Mar. 27" (1856) circular datestamp on cover to Paris, France, addressed to George Hussey Jr., red "New-York Am. Pkt. Mar. 29" circular datestamp--carried on the Collins Line Ericsson, departing New York on March 29, 1856, and arriving at Liverpool on April 12--"Etats-Unis Paq. Am. Calais 14 Avril 56" arrival datestamp (American Packet service via England), "8" decimes due handstamp for French inland postage, Paris receiving backstamp (April 15)

Very Fine and colorful; most of backflap removed and two small tears at top.

This cover is the earliest documented use of the 5¢ 1856 on transatlantic mail--the earliest of all dates is the March 24 cover to Nova Scotia offered in lot 217. It is also an extremely rare example of the 5¢ 1856 Imperforate used to make up the American Packet rate to France. Only five fully prepaid 5¢ 1856 covers to France by American Packet are recorded, three of which are offered in this sale (lots 224-226).

There were two American Packet services to France available: Collins Line via England--21¢ per half-ounce rate with 8 decimes per 7.5 grams due for British transit and French inland postage; and Havre Line direct to France--20¢ per half-ounce rate with 6 decimes per 7.5 grams due for French inland postage.

Only two of the five recorded 5¢ 1856 Issue fully prepaid American Packet covers were carried by the Collins Line via England. They are both correctly prepaid 21¢--one is this three-color franking, and the other has a strip of 5¢ and 1¢ single (ex Hargest and Beane; illustrated in Hargest book, p. 53). The other three covers were carried by the Havre Line direct to France.

Ex Daniel F. Kelleher sale, 11/21/1921, ex Paul C. Rohloff, D. Scott Gallagher, "Sevenoaks", Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Ashbrook index card notes at The Philatelic Foundation identify the sender of this cover as Dr. L. F. Potter. Illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 55). With 1977 and 1998 P.F. certificates.

E. 10,000-15,000
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226°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 226, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The only 5¢ 1856 Imperforate block used on cover to France or with other stamps-- one of the most extraordinary covers in classic United States philately

5¢ Red Brown (12), block of four, margins full to slightly cut in, used with 1¢ Blue, Type II (7), Plate 1E, each stamp cancelled by rimless grid which ties 1¢, the 5¢ block tied by "Donaldsonville La. Sep. 8" (1856) circular datestamp on blue folded cover to Maubourguet, France, addressed to Pascal Labusquierre, red "New-York Am. Pkt. Sep. 20" circular datestamp--carried on the Havre Line Fulton, departing New York September 20, 1856, and arriving at Havre October 3--red "Outre-Mer Le Havre 3 Oct. 56" arrival datestamp for incoming ship (non-contract) mail, manuscript "12" decimes due (7.5-15 grams), French receiving backstamps

Fine overall; 5¢ block has small faults, 1¢ gum soaks, cover refolded at bottom, toning affects stamps.

Our records contain four 5¢ 1856 blocks on cover. An intact block of six on cover is the largest of all recorded multiples (offered in this sale as lot 234). The cover offered here is also an extremely rare example of the 5¢ 1856 used to make up the American Packet rate to France. Only five fully prepaid 5¢ 1856 covers to France by American Packet are recorded, three of which are offered in this sale (lots 224-226).

There were two American Packet services to France available: Collins Line via England--21¢ per half-ounce rate with 8 decimes per 7.5 grams due for British transit and French inland postage; and Havre Line direct to France--20¢ per half-ounce rate with 6 decimes per 7.5 grams due for French inland postage. The two ships of the Havre Line, Fulton and Arago, made only 12 trips during the one-year period from March 1856 (earliest use of 5¢ 1856) until the new 15¢ U.S.-France treaty rate was implemented in April 1857.

Two of the five recorded American Packet covers were carried by the Collins Line via England. They are both correctly prepaid 21¢--one has a three-color franking (lot 225 in this sale), and the other has a strip of 5¢ and 1¢ single (ex Hargest and Beane; illustrated in Hargest book, p. 53).

Three covers were carried by the Havre Line direct to France. Only one has the correct amount of postage for the 20¢ rate (ex Walske, Sale 1119, lot 536). The other two are overpaid 1¢ (the cover offered here and lot 224 in this sale). It is believed that the practice of prepaying the slightly higher rate was a way to ensure that a letter would be sufficiently prepaid for the earliest available sailing from New York. The cover offered here is an example of a letter prepaid 21¢ for Collins Line service via England, but sent by the Havre Line direct to France (20¢ rate). This usage would be extraordinary with any composition of stamps, but the presence of an intact 5¢ 1856 block is truly miraculous. In New Orleans, where a large volume of 5¢ stamps were used, they were usually cut into strips. The river town of Donaldsonville in Ascension Parish was a low-volume source.

Ex Henry W. Hill, Rudolf Wunderlich, Louis Grunin, Ryohei Ishikawa and Frederick R. Mayer. Signed by Stanley B. Ashbrook and illustrated in his Special Service, #1, p. 3, photo 3. Illustrated in Hill, The United States Five Cent Stamps of 1856-1861 (p. 13) and Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 57). With 1993 P.F. certificate.

E. 30,000-40,000
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227°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 227, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A double-rate "Three Months" cover to France with a unique combination of stamps

5¢ Red Brown (12), large margins including part of adjoining stamp at right, rich color, used with 1¢ Blue, Type II (7) pair and 3¢ Deep Brownish Carmine, Type I (11), 1¢ mostly large margins except slightly in at bottom right, 3¢ clear to large margins, 1¢ and 3¢ stamps tied together by grid cancels, pair and 5¢ tied by "New Orleans La. Feb. 10" (1857) circular datestamp on blue folded cover to Nantes, France, from the Garnier correspondence, red "New-York Br. Pkt. Feb. 18" circular datestamp--carried on the Cunarder Africa, departing New York on February 18, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool March 2--red Liverpool datestamp on back and Calais arrival datestamp (both dated March 3), "GB/1F60C" framed Anglo-French accountancy handstamp, "8" decimes due handstamp crossed out and re-rated "16" decimes for double rate (7.5 to 15 grams), Paris transit backstamp (March 4)

Extremely Fine. This beautiful cover to France from the "Three Months" period is the only one recorded with this three-color combination of 1851 Issue stamps. It is generally regarded as the most visually appealing of the covers from this rate period of U.S.-France mails.

The "Three Months" period, from January 1 through March 31, 1857, is defined by the introduction of new markings on mail from the U.S. to France via Great Britain, carried by British or American Packet. The changes reflect the new G.B.-France postal treaty, effective January 1, 1857. The most obvious marking, the "GB/1F60C" Anglo-French accountancy handstamp, indicates the British bulk mail charges on letters to France transiting Great Britain. On April 1, 1857, this transitional period came to an end when the new U.S.-France postal treaty went into effect, and the 15¢ rate became the new standard.

Covers to France are often seen with a single-rate U.S. prepayment and double-rate French postage charge. This is due to the difference in weight standards, with the U.S. using a half-ounce increment versus the French 7.5 gram metric increment. However, "Three Months" covers with prepaid double-rate U.S. postage are rare. This cover is the only recorded example with the unusual 5¢ 1856 plus 1¢ and 3¢ combination franking. A letter exceeding the half-ounce U.S. single-rate weight limit would weigh more than 14.17 grams and come close to exceeding the 15-gram limit for the French double rate--this was just under 15 grams.

Ex Sir Nicolas Waterhouse, J. David Baker, Louis Grunin, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Bakers' U.S. Classics (p. 282) and Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 65). With 2005 P.F. certificate.

E. 20,000-30,000
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228°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 228, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, One of two recorded 5¢ 1856 "Three Months" covers carried by American Packet

5¢ Red Brown (12), large even margins, rich color, tied by neatly struck "New Orleans La. Jan. 19, 1857" circular datestamp on light blue folded letter to Massevaux, France, sender's blue oval handstamp, red "New-York Am. Pkt. Feb. 1" circular datestamp--carried by the Collins Line Atlantic, departing New York on February 1, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool February 14, the last American Packet sailing of the "Three Months" period--red Liverpool transit backstamp (February 16), "GB/40c" oval Anglo-French accountancy handstamp, Calais arrival datestamp (February 16), "5" decimes due handstamp for postage from England to France, French transit and receiving backstamps (February 18), Extremely Fine--the postage should have been prepaid 21¢ for the American Packet rate, but this was accepted with only the 5¢ stamp, it is recorded as the only 5¢ 1856 known on an American Packet cover to France during the "Three Months" period--ex Dr. Martin, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 69), signed Ashbrook, with 1985 P.F. certificate

E. 3,000-4,000
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229°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 229, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A fascinating 5¢ 1856 treaty-rate cover to France carried on the special Inman Line contract sailing

5¢ Red Brown (12), horizontal strip of three, full margins to clear at top, rich color, tied by lightly struck "New Orleans La. Sep. 30, 1857" circular datestamp on blue folded letter to Port Vendres, France--sender's directive to go on the Cunard October 7 steamer sailing, but the New York exchange office held it for the next American steamer sailing scheduled for October 10, which was cancelled; instead, it went on the Inman Line City of Washington, departing October 15, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool October 28 under a special contract with the Post Office Department--"New York Paid 6 Oct. 10" 6¢ credit datestamp (American Packet), red Calais arrival datestamp (October 28), French receiving backstamps including Port Vendres (October 29), Very Fine, ex Caspary and Mayer, from our 1976 Rarities of the World sale, illustrated and described in detail in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 77), signed Ashbrook

E. 4,000-5,000
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230°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 230, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Attractive and colorful treaty rate cover to France with a strip of the 5¢ 1856 Issue

5¢ Red Brown (12), horizontal strip of three, large bottom margin, others mostly clear, rich color, tied by lightly struck "New Orleans La. May 10, 1857" circular datestamps on blue folded letter to Paris, France, red "New York Paid 12 May 27" 12¢ credit datestamp--carried by the Cunarder Asia, departing New York on May 27, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool June 8--French arrival datestamp (June 9), red framed "P.D." handstamp, Paris receiving backstamp (June 9), left and bottom back panels removed, vertical fold between two left stamps, otherwise Fine, ex Tapp, Rohloff, Reed, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 73), signed Ashbrook

E. 1,500-2,000
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231°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 231, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, 5¢ 1856 and 10¢ 1855 Issue on an unusual first-week treaty rate cover to France

5¢ Red Brown (12), large side margins, clear or touching at top and bottom, deep shade, used with 10¢ Green, Type II (14), large margins, rich color, tied by lightly struck "New Orleans La. Apr. 6, 1857" circular datestamp on blue folded letter to Bordeaux, France, red "New York Paid 12 Apr. 15" 12¢ credit datestamp struck twice--carried by the Cunarder Asia, departing New York on April 15, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool April 28--French arrival datestamp (April 28), receiving backstamps including Bordeaux (April 30)--the French postal clerk erroneously rated this as a pre-treaty letter with manuscript "5" decimes due (American Packet) and re-rated "8" (British Packet), but nothing was due since the new 15¢ treaty rate was paid (undoubtedly the clerk was unfamiliar with the new procedures)--some wear and paper loss along folds, 5¢ slightly wrinkled, otherwise Fine, ex Moody, Walter Hubbard, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 72), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 2,000-3,000
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232°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 232, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The phenomenal triple-rate cover to France with strips of the 5¢ and 10¢ Imperforate-- a recent discovery and one of the most outstanding 1851-56 Issue covers extant

5¢ Red Brown (12), vertical strip of three, huge margins, used with 10¢ Green, Type III/II/III (15/14/15) vertical combination strip, both strips have large margins and are tied by "New Orleans La. Jul. 14, 1857" circular datestamps on light blue folded letter and prices current report to Trie sur Baise, France, bold red "New York Paid 36 Jul. 22" 36¢ credit datestamp--carried on the Cunarder Arabia, departing New York on July 22, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool August 2--red Calais arrival datestamp (August 3), Paris transit and Trie receiving backstamps (August 4)

Very Fine; certificate notes some toning along right side of 5¢ strip (top of strip partly lifted off cover) and 10¢ strip with small paper adherences and faint creasing--utterly trivial flaws which do not diminish the quality or importance of this stellar multiple-rate franking and cover.

The 1851-56 Imperforate issues are rarely found paying the 45¢ triple treaty rate on covers to France, because the triple rate is unusual and perforated issues began to replace imperforate stamps in the summer and fall of 1857, just months after the treaty went into effect on April 1, 1857. We have found references to two other covers with strips of three of the 5¢ 1856 and 10¢ 1855 Issues in the Ashbrook index card records at The Philatelic Foundation: 1) from Boston, date unknown, ex Waterhouse 1924 sale, strips cut in; and 2) from New Orleans, August 20, 1857, ex Ackerman. However, despite these written notes, we have been unable to find photos or more current sale records for these two covers. It is significant that we have no computerized record of having offered a 45¢ rate cover with the 5¢ 1856, nor can we find another in a search of auction catalogues or in our Scott 12 census (other than the Waterhouse and Ackerman citations).

This cover ranks among the most important of classic United States imperforate issue covers. Its provenance has eluded us, and it is believed to have originated from a long-dormant collection when it surfaced in a 2007 Cherrystone auction. This is the first major name sale in which this cover has been offered, and we expect it will achieve proper recognition in the context of the Gross sale.

Ex Joseph Hackmey. With 2007 P.F. certificate.

E. 30,000-40,000
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233°
 
Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 233, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, `

The finest of the three recorded covers with six 5¢ 1856 Issue stamps, the largest number recorded on a single cover

DESCRIPTION

5¢ Red Brown (12), two horizontal strips of three, ample to large margins, tied by three strikes of "New Orleans La. Aug. 12" (1857) circular datestamp on blue folded cover to Port Vendres, France, red "New York Paid 24 Aug. 19" 24¢ double-rate credit datestamp for British Packet service--carried on the Cunarder Persia, departing New York on August 19, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool August 29--red "Et. Unis Serv. Br. A.C. 31 Aout 57" arrival datestamp (August 31), French transit and Port Vendres receiving datestamps on back (September 3)

PROVENANCE

Paris auction ca. 1950 (Ashbrook notes)

Cherrystone sale, 7/19/1989, lot 2433, to Dr. Kapiloff

Dr. Leonard Kapiloff, Siegel Auction Galleries, 10/3/1992, Sale 744, lot 47, to Mayer

Frederick R. Mayer, Bennett sale, 10/21/2005, lot 249, to Hackmey

Joseph Hackmey (collection sold privately to William H. Gross, 2010)

CENSUS, LITERATURE AND EXHIBITION REFERENCES

Richard C. Frajola and Frederick R. Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856, fig. 6-21, p. 73

ANPHILEX 1996 Invited Exhibits (Mayer)

CERTIFICATION

The Philatelic Foundation (2005)

CONDITION NOTES

Extremely Fine; one 5¢ stamp with small tear at top right and another with small corner crease at top right; cover has reinforced fold at top

HISTORY AND COMMENTARY

Jefferson--A Most Appropriate Choice for Mail to France

From 1847 to 1855, postage stamps depicted George Washington and Benjamin Franklin exclusively. In 1855 postal officials decided to make a change by placing Thomas Jefferson's portrait on the new 5¢ issue, which joined the four other circulating denominations. No records exist to explain the motivation for choosing Jefferson or even for issuing a 5¢ stamp, which did not fit any domestic prepaid rates. However, the stamp ended up being frequently used to pay the shore-to-ship rate on letters to France, so the choice of the former minister to France and a well-known Francophile, whether intentional or not, was an appropriate tribute. Comparing the right-facing engraving with portraits of the era, one reaches the inescapable conclusion that the model for the stamp was Gilbert Stuart's famous left-facing portrait of this Founding Father, the Sage of Monticello.

The majority of 5¢ 1856 covers to France have a single stamp paying the shore-to-ship postage for British Open Mail service to France via Great Britain. After the U.S.-France postal treaty took effect on April 1, 1857, the 5¢ stamp could be used to pay the new 15¢ per half-ounce rate, either in combination with a 10¢ or in multiples of three. Very few treaty rate covers are known that required 30¢ or 45¢ for the double or triple weight classes. This cover with two strips of three is perhaps the most outstanding of its kind, since there are only three recorded covers with six 5¢ stamps, and this one is in the finest condition.

Stanley B. Ashbrook's notes at The Philatelic Foundation indicate this cover first appeared in a Paris auction in the 1950s. It has no auction record until 1989, when it was sold in a Cherrystone sale to Dr. Leonard Kapiloff (1915-1993), a close friend of Robert Siegel's since the 1930s. "Doc" Kapiloff was a dentist by training, but earned his livelihood from real estate. The only dentistry he practiced was volunteering at a free clinic. With his financial success, Dr. Kapiloff was able to enjoy philately by acquiring items that appealed to him, especially classic United States issues.

When the Siegel firm sold the Kapiloff collection in 1992, the double-rate cover to France with two strips sold to Frederick R. Mayer, a wealthy Denver businessman, philanthropist and patron of the arts, who specialized in the 5¢ 1856 Issue. When the Mayer collection was sold at auction through Bennett in 2005, the Israeli insurance magnate, Joseph Hackmey, acquired the cover. Finally, Mr. Gross bought the entire Hackmey collection privately in 2010, and the cover joined other important classic rarities.

E. 50,000-75,000
Future Sale
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234°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 234, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Cover to Germany with the largest intact block of the 5¢ 1856 Issue known on or off cover

5¢ Red Brown (12), horizontal block of six, margins to cut in at sides, rich color, tied by four strikes of "Richmond Va. Jul. 23, 1857" circular datestamp on blue folded letter to Bremen, Germany, redirected to Münder Springe (Hanover), sender's directive (partly covered by block) to go by Havre Line Arago from New York--carried on that steamer, departing New York July 25, 1857, and arriving at Southampton August 6--red "N. York Am. Pkt. 7 Paid Jul. 25" 7¢ credit datestamp for Prussian Closed Mail, red "AACHEN 7/8 FRANCO" (August 7) framed datestamp, red crayon "1-1/2" silbergroschen rate for forwarding, blue Münder receiving backstamp (August 9)

This block was originally folded over the top edge of the folded letter. The letter has been opened up, the crease in the block has been pressed out (small faults), and the letter seam along top has been trimmed and repaired with backing paper. A vertical file fold is reinforced with tape, causing slight staining. With modest professional paper conservation, this important artifact certainly could be made more attractive.

Our records show 11 blocks of the 5¢ 1856 Issue, including two unused blocks of four, five off-cover used blocks, and four blocks on cover. This block of six is the largest of all recorded multiples on or off cover. The Rohloff collection contained a block of five on cover (originally a block of six, from which one stamp was removed), and all others are blocks of four, including those cut from a larger pen-cancelled multiple.

Ex J. M. Bartels sale, 3/18-21/1921; ex Dr. Clarence H. Eagle, J. C. Morgenthau sale, 4/4-10/1923; ex Mercury Stamp Co. sale, 3/14-15/1946; ex Ezra D. Cole, Stephen D. Bechtel (1993 Rarities of the World sale, Sale 755, lot 46), Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Hill, The United States Five Cent Stamps of 1856-1861 (p. 13) and Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 115). With 1994 P.F. certificate.

E. 20,000-30,000
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235°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 235, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Extraordinary combination of 1851-56 Issue stamps paying Prussian Closed Mail rate to Germany

5¢ Red Brown (12), large margin at left to clear or just touched on other sides, used with 1¢ Blue, Type IV (9) and vertical pair of 12¢ Black (17), 1¢ three large margins and slightly in at top, 12¢ mostly clear, matching grid cancels, "Wilmington Del. Feb. 20" (1857) circular datestamp on cover to Schorndorf, Wurttemberg, Germany, red "N. York Am. Pkt. 7 Paid Feb. 21" 7¢ credit datestamp for Prussian Closed Mail--carried on the Ocean Line Washington, departing New York February 21, 1857, and arriving at Southampton March 7--red "AACHEN 8/3 FRANCO" (March 8) framed datestamp, German transit and receiving backstamps including Schorndorf (March 11), docketed with name of sender and state of origin across lower half of cover tying 1¢ stamp, 12¢ bottom stamp has crease and tear, small piece of backflap removed, otherwise Fine, only two foreign-destination covers are recorded with this combination of 1851 Imperforate denominations, ex Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 113), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 2,000-3,000
Future Sale
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236°
c
Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 236, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Rare 5¢ Imperforate and 10¢ Perforated mixed-issue franking on cover to the Kingdom of Hanover

5¢ Red Brown (12), three full to large margins, barely in at top, used with 10¢ Green, Type III (33), tied by "Milwaukie Wis. Sep. 2, 1857" circular datestamp on cover to Gronau, Hanover, Germany, red "N. York U.S. Pkt. 6 Paid Sep. 5" 6¢ credit datestamp for Bremen Mail--carried on the Vanderbilt European Line North Star, departing New York September 5, 1857, and arriving at Bremerhaven September 19--blue "AMERICA/UBER BREMEN/ FRANCO" handstamp, Gronau receiving backstamp (September 20), certificate notes some very minor stamp toning, still Very Fine, only a half-dozen covers to Europe with the 5¢ 1856 and 10¢ 1857 Perforated combination are recorded (two to Germany), ex Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 106), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 1,500-2,000
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237°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 237, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, A spectacular cover with the 5¢ 1856 and 1855 10¢ Type II strip of three correctly paying the 35¢ Prussian Closed Mail rate to Denmark

5¢ Red Brown (12), large to huge margins, rich color, used with horizontal strip of three 10¢ Green, Type II (14), Positions 58-60R1, three large margins, just touched at right, strip cancelled by three strikes of circle of wedges cancel, 5¢ tied by "Orient N.Y. 1858 Apr. 20" double-line circular datestamp (Collins marking) on cover to Copenhagen, Denmark, sender's directive "via Prusn. Closed Mail"--carried on the Cunarder America, departing Boston on April 21, 1858, and arriving at Liverpool on May 4--red "New-York Am. Pkt. Apr. 24" circular datestamp on back, Boston office applied the red "12" credit handstamp for Prussian Closed Mail, red "AACHEN 8/5 FRANCO" (May 8) framed datestamp, "KDOPA HAMBURG 9/5" (May 9) Royal Danish Postal Agency in Hamburg double-circle datestamp on back

Fine appearance; repaired cover tears at bottom, left 10¢ has tiny pre-use tear and crease in top margin, but the appearance is attractive, especially with the unusual Collins-type datestamp and fancy cancels.

Our records contain listings for seven covers with the 35¢ Prussian Closed Mail rate paid by a 5¢ used with three 10¢ 1855 Imperforate stamps. This is the only one of the seven to Denmark. The only other 5¢ 1856 cover to Denmark went by French mail and apparently has a missing stamp (ex Baker and Piller).

Ex Alfred H. Caspary, Philip G. Rust (1987 Rarities of the World sale), Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 147). With 2005 P.F. certificate.

E. 5,000-7,500
Future Sale
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238°
c
Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 238, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, 5¢ 1856 Issue used on a "Three Months" cover to Italy via England and France

5¢ Red Brown (12), large to huge margins showing bit of adjoining stamp at top, rich color, tied by "New Orleans La. Dec. 9" (1856) circular datestamp on folded cover to Intra, Piedmont, Italy, red "New-York Br. Pkt. Dec. 24" circular datestamp--carried on the Cunarder Africa, departing New York December 24, 1856, and arriving at Liverpool January 4, 1857, the first Cunard sailing to arrive during the "Three Months" period--"GB/1F60C" framed Anglo-French accountancy handstamp, red Liverpool transit backstamp and Calais arrival datestamp (both January 5), manuscript "10" decimes due for transit charges, Intra receiving backstamp (January 10), top back panel detached and rejoined, slight toning, Very Fine, a scarce 5¢ 1856 cover to Italy carried under the same "Three Months" interim arrangements as mail to France, ex Caspary, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 99), with 2005 P.F. certificate

E. 1,500-2,000
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239°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 239, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Scarce "Three Months" cover to Italy via England and France with choice 5¢ 1856 stamp

5¢ Red Brown (12), full even margins, deep shade, tied by "New Orleans La. Feb. 25" (1857) circular datestamp on folded letter to Intra, Piedmont, Italy, red "New-York Br. Pkt. Mar. 10" circular datestamp--carried on the Cunarder Niagara, departing Boston March 11, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool March 23--"GB/1F60C" framed Anglo-French accountancy handstamp, red Liverpool transit backstamp and Calais arrival datestamp (both January 5), manuscript "10" decimes due for transit charges, Intra receiving backstamp (March 28), Very Fine, beautiful and scarce 5¢ 1856 cover to Italy carried under the same "Three Months" interim arrangements as mail to France, ex Wunderlich, Reed, Mayer and Hackmey, with 2005 P.F. certificate

E. 1,500-2,000
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240°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 240, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Rare cover to Switzerland with British Open Mail rate paid by a single 5¢ 1856 stamp

5¢ Red Brown (12), two full to large margins, others slightly in, deep shade, tied by "Baresville Ohio Jun. 11" (1857) circular datestamp on buff cover to Schwyz, Switzerland, "New York 6 Jun. 16" 6¢ debit datestamp--carried on the Cunarder America, departing Boston June 17, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool June 28--Calais arrival datestamp (June 29), Paris and Basel transit backstamps (June 30 and July 1), Swiss receiving backstamp, red crayon "230" rappen due marking equivalent to 42¢ rate, minor edgewear, Very Fine, our records contain only five examples of this single 5¢ franking for the British Open Mail rate to Switzerland (including one other from this correspondence), ex Gibson, Walter Hubbard, Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 123)

E. 2,000-3,000
Future Sale
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241°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 241, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, Attractive 5¢ 1856 and 10¢ 1855 Issue combination for Prussian Closed Mail rate to Switzerland

5¢ Red Brown (12), mostly clear to ample margins, just touched at left, used with vertical strip of three 10¢ Green, Types III/II/III (33/32/33), large margins to in at right, tied by "New Orleans La. Jul. 15, 1857" circular datestamp on buff cover to Geneva, Switzerland, red "N. York Br. Pkt. Jul. 22" backstamp--despite the New York exchange office British Packet designation, it was carried on the Collins Line Columbia, departing New York July 18, 1857, and arriving at Liverpool July 29--red "12" credit handstamp, red "AACHEN 4/8 FRANCO" (August 4) framed datestamp, magenta manuscript "f2" silbergroschen for Prussian transit, red crayon "6" rappen Swiss due marking, transit backstamps including Basel and Geneva (August 9), cover repaired at top and bottom right but not affecting stamps, still Fine overall appearance, our records contain only six 35¢ Prussian Closed Mail rate covers to Switzerland with this 5¢ and 10¢ combination, ex Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 120), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 1,500-2,000
Future Sale
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242°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 242, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The only recorded 5¢ 1856 Issue cover to Hungary--an outstanding foreign-mail usage of this classic imperforate stamp

5¢ Red Brown (12), huge bottom sheet margin and full to clear at left and top, slightly in at right, crisp shade and impression, tied by clear strike of "Peoria Ills. Oct. 31" (1856) circular datestamp on buff cover to Eperies, Hungary (now known as Presov, Slovakia), sender's directive "p first Steamer via Liverpool" and prepaid for the British Open Mail rate, but evidently arrived too late for the November 5 Cunard sailing from Boston--carried on the Collins Line Atlantic, departing from New York November 8, 1856, and arriving at Liverpool November 20--treated as totally unpaid with "N. York Am. Pkt. 23 Nov. 8" 23¢ debit datestamp for U.S. portion of 30¢ Prussian Closed Mail rate, red Aachen transit backstamp (November 22), blue manuscript "48" kreuzers due, "CASCHAU/26 NOV." italics two-line receiving datestamp on back--the Military District of Kaschau was one of the administrative units of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary from 1850 to 1860

Very Fine and a unique 5¢ 1856 Issue cover to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Ex Paul C. Rohloff, D. Scott Gallagher, Tito Giamporcaro, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 150). With 2005 P.F. certificate.

E. 5,000-7,500
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243°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 243, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, One of three recorded 5¢ 1856 Issue covers to India--all from the Fitz-Edward Hall correspondence--this is the only one with a block of the 10¢ 1857 Issue

5¢ Red Brown (12), mostly clear margins, touched at bottom, used with block of four of 10¢ Green, Types II/III (33/32), Positions 33-34/43-44L1, bright shade, tied by "Troy N.Y. Paid May 4, 1858" circular datestamps on light blue folded letter to Saugor, Hindustan (India), sender's directive "Overland via Southampton" and "Paid to India" with correct 45¢ postage for British Mail via Southampton--carried on the Cunarder Canada, departing from Boston May 5, 1858, and arriving at Liverpool May 17--"Boston Br. Pkt. 5 May" backstamp, red "40" credit handstamp, red British transit datestamp (May 17), manuscript "1" pence British Colonial credit marking--the journey to India continued from Great Britain on the Peninsular & Oriental Line steamer Columbo, departing Southampton May 20, and arriving at Alexandria (Egypt) June 2; carried overland to Suez and from there by the steamer Nubia to Aden (arriving June 10) and on to Bombay--red Bombay transit (June 24) and Saugor receiving datestamp (June 29) on back, receipt docketing "Recd June 29, 1858"

Fine overall appearance; the 10¢ block was originally folded over the top edge of letter--refolded and crease in stamps pressed out, inside of letter reinforced with silk, and 5¢ has faint small crease.

The three recorded 5¢ 1856 covers to India come from the same correspondence, addressed to Fitz-Edward Hall (1825–1901), the eldest of six children born in Troy, New York. Hall entered Harvard in 1846, but left the same year for Calcutta in pursuit of his brother. Wrecked off the Ganges and forced to stay in India, Hall took lessons in Hindustani and Sanskrit, and decided to stay to master the languages. From 1850 to 1855 he studied and taught as a professor of Sanskrit and English. In 1856 he became inspector of public instruction for the central provinces at Saugor. Hall served as a rifleman for nine months, fighting rebels in the Sepoy mutiny of 1856 to 1858, during which time these letters were sent to him from Troy. He left India in 1862, and settled in London as a professor of Sanskrit, Hindustani, and Indian jurisprudence in King's College.

Ex Mortimer L. Neinken, David T. Beals, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 134). Signed by Stanley B. Ashbrook. With 1989 P.F. certificate.

E. 10,000-15,000
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244°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 244, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, One of three recorded 5¢ 1856 Issue covers to India--from the Fitz-Edward Hall correspondence

5¢ Red Brown (12), full margins to clear, used with two pairs of 10¢ Green, Types II and III (32, 33), bright shade, tied by "Troy N.Y. Paid Feb. 2, 1858" circular datestamps and square grid cancels on light blue folded letter to Saugor, Hindustan (India), sender's directive "Overland via Southampton" and "Paid" with correct 45¢ postage for British Mail via Southampton--carried on the Cunarder Europa, departing New York February 3, 1858, and arriving at Liverpool February 15--red "New-York Br. Pkt. Feb. 3" backstamp, magenta manuscript "40" credit, red "London Paid" transit datestamp (February 16)--the journey to India continued from Great Britain on the Peninsular & Oriental Line steamer Columbo, departing Southampton February 20, and arriving at Alexandria (Egypt) March 5; carried overland to Suez and from there by the steamers to Aden and Bombay--red Bombay transit and Saugor receiving datestamp (April 14) on back, receipt docketing "Recd Ap. 14, 1858", left 10¢ small tear, 5¢ small corner crease, still Very Fine, only three 5¢ 1856 covers to India are recorded, ex "Patrick Henry" (Molesworth), Mayer and Hackmey, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 133), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 5,000-7,500
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245°
c
Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 245, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The only recorded 5¢ 1856 Issue cover to Cape Verde Islands--an impressive 65¢ franking

5¢ Red Brown (12), ample to large margins, rich color, used with two vertical pairs and single 12¢ Black (17), each with sheet margin at bottom, other sides large to slightly in, tied by "Washington D.C. Jul. 23" (1857) circular datestamps on cover to Porto Grande, Isle St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands, addressed to Lieut. E. C. Stout aboard the U.S.S. St. Louis--this navy vessel was patrolling the waters off the west coast of Africa to capture slave traders--red "(New-Yor)k Am. Pkt. (Jul.) 25" circular datestamp on back (only part remains), magenta manuscript "44" credit--carried on the Havre Line Fulton, departing New York July 25, 1857, and arriving at Southampton August 6--red British transit datestamp (August 6), 5¢ tiny tear at bottom and corner creases, top stamps in 12¢ pairs have small faults and margin toning, backflap and part of side flap removed, slightly reduced at top, repaired just above the red British datestamp, otherwise Fine, ex Mayer and Hackmey, from our 1975 Rarities of the World sale, illustrated in Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 144, where described as one of two covers to Cape Verde, but we record only one), with 2006 P.F. certificate

E. 5,000-7,500
Future Sale
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246°
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Sale Number 1211, Lot Number 246, 1856 5¢ Red Brown, The unique and spectacular 5¢ 1856 Issue cover to Java in the Dutch East Indies

5¢ Red Brown (12), two full margins, others touching to slightly in, used with two 10¢ Green, Type I (31) and pair of 10¢ Green, Type III (33), the Type I singles have perfs trimmed on all sides, tied by grid cancels and "Edgartown Ms. Mar. 29" (1858) circular datestamp with another clear strike on cover to Batavia, Java, Netherlands East Indies, addressed to Captain S. Lyman Norton of the ship Minstrel, in care of Paine, Stricker & Co., sender's directive "Via Southampton" and prepaid at the old 45¢ rate (lowered to 33¢ in February 1856)--carried on the Cunarder Arabia, departing New York March 31, 1858, and arriving at Liverpool April 11--"(Bost)on Br. Pkt. 30 Mar." backstamp (only part remains), red "40" credit handstamp, red "London Paid" transit datestamp (April 12), manuscript "80" for additional postage due in Batavia

Fine overall appearance; small part of bottom left corner repaired, part of backflap replaced (visible along top edge), two 10¢ Type I stamps trimmed and scored by horizontal line.

The sender applied 45¢ in stamps and wrote "via Southampton" to indicate the route, but by this date the rate to Java by British Mail via Southampton was only 33¢. The sender was either unaware of the rate change two years earlier, or they affixed additional postage for the faster route via Marseilles (45¢ rate) to ensure that the letter was fully prepaid regardless of which route was used.

After the first leg of the journey from the U.S. to Great Britain, the cover was carried by the Peninsular & Oriental Line Indus to Alexandria (arriving May 5). It traveled overland to Suez and then by steamer Hindostan to Galle, Ceylon (arriving May 22). The next leg from Galle to Singapore was on the Cadiz (arriving May 30). Finally, the trip from Singapore to Batavia was made on another vessel, and an additional 80 Dutch cents was collected from the addressee.

This sale contains three remarkable covers addressed to Captain S. Lyman Norton as he sailed the ship Minstrel from Boston to the East Indies and Far East in 1857 and 1858. Included are covers with the 1851-56 Issue addressed to Java (lots 246, offered here, and lot 297) and Singapore (lot 270).

Ex Emmerson C. Krug, Paul C. Rohloff, Frederick R. Mayer and Joseph Hackmey. Illustrated in Bakers' U.S. Classics (p. 214), Starnes, United States Letter Rates to Foreign Destinations 1847 to GPU-UPU (p. 30) and Frajola-Mayer, The United States Five Cent Stamp of 1856 (p. 151). With 1977 and 2006 P.F. certificates.

The Norton Correspondence

This sale contains three remarkable covers addressed to Captain S. Lyman Norton as he sailed the ship Minstrel from Boston to the East Indies and Far East in 1857 and 1858. Included are covers with the 1851-56 Issue addressed to Java (lots 246 and 297) and Singapore (lot 270).

E. 10,000-15,000
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