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Sale 988 — The Steven C. Walske Collection of Civil War Special Routes

Sale Date — Thursday, 27 May, 2010

Category — Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams Express

Lot
Symbol
Photo/Description
Cat./Est. Value
Realized
54
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 54, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 2, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 2, 1861Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 2, 1861. Clearly struck circular datestamp on small northbound cover to Flushing N.Y., originated somewhere in the South, "Paid" in circle handstamp applied at Mobile Ala. partly covered by 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26), tied by blue grid with matching "Louisville Ky. Aug. 3, 1861" double-circle datestamp, manuscript "Examined M M Seay Agt. S.C.A" censor marking applied by former postal route agent (see Towle, p. 345), a half-inch of right edge and part of stamp restored, this injured artifact is nonetheless a rare example of censorship on express mail originating in the Confederacy, accompanied by a blue-gray Adams label with instructions for sending letters to the Confederate States (reported to have been removed from this cover, but this cannot be assured), Special Routes Census No. N-AD-44, ex Gallagher

E. 500-750
450
55
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 55, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressMontgomery Ala., 10c Red entire (59XU3), Montgomery Ala., 10c Red entire (59XU3)Montgomery Ala., 10c Red entire (59XU3). Clearly struck red provisional handstamp with "Montgomery Ala. Jul. 10, 1861" circular datestamp on small narrow lavender cover from a Southern lady in Prattville Ala. to her sister, Hattie Porter, in Bridgeport Conn., partly readable strike of "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 15, 1861" circular datestamp, 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26) affixed over provisional handstamp and tied by blue grid (stamp lifted, moved and hinged in place), matching "Louisville Ky. Jul. 15, 1861" double-circle datestamp, manuscript "28/1" indicating 25c express charge and 3c postage prepaid by sender, small part of upper left corner clipped and mended

VERY FINE. ONE OF FOUR RECORDED EXPRESS COVERS CARRIED ACROSS THE LINES WITH CONFEDERATE POSTAGE PAID BY THE MONTGOMERY POSTMASTER'S PROVISIONAL.

The original letter enclosure is datelined at Prattville Ala., from a Southern lady to her sister in Connecticut, expressing confident anti-Union sentiments: "I think if some of the Abolitionists could visit the South now & see how quietly things are going on...they would despair of starving us out. What a pity it is, those that have been the cause of the War could not be the only ones to suffer by it." The writer also mentions sending this letter by express from Montgomery and that "we miss our Northern papers since the mails stopped..."

Very few covers are recorded with Confederate provisional stamps or markings used in conjunction with across-the-lines express service. This group includes the provisionals of Atlanta (handstamp), Houston (handstamp), Lynchburg (press-printed entire), Memphis (adhesive), Mobile (adhesive), Montgomery (handstamp), Nashville (adhesive and handstamp) and New Orleans (adhesive). The four Montgomery provisional covers have the same 10c handstamp and 3c 1857 adhesive (Census Nos. N-AD-20, 37, 40 and 50).

Illustrated in Special Route (p. 59). Ex Emerson, Antrim and Malpass

E. 7,500-10,000
9,000
Back to Top
56
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 56, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressForwarded by Harnden's Express from Americus Geo, Forwarded by Harnden's Express from Americus GeoForwarded by Harnden's Express from Americus Geo. Black on orange glazed label affixed on back of buff cover to Thomas Wood at 87 Maiden Lane in New York City (possibly the well-known artist who made etchings of African-Americans in 1861), small filing pinhole ties label, bold "Americus Ga. Jul. 26" (1861) circular datestamp with matching "Paid" and "10" in oval C.S.A. rate handstamp, "Adams Express Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861" circular datestamp, 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26) at upper right cancelled by blue "Louisville Ky. Jul. 30, 1861" double-circle datestamp -- this stamp was not considered valid, having originated in a Southern post office -- vertical pair of 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26) affixed by Adams Louisville office and tied by blue "Louisville Ky. Jul. 30, 1861" double-circle datestamp and grid

AN IMPORTANT ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS USAGE, SHOWING THE ONLY RECORDED EXAMPLE OF THE HARNDEN'S LABEL FROM ITS OFFICE AT AMERICUS, GEORGIA.

The cover has been torn in half down the center and thru the 3c pair. In addition, much of the bottom stamp of the 3c pair was torn off, apparently to reveal the "10" rate handstamp. For the purpose of improving its appearance, document repair tape has been used to seal the tear, and the back of the cover bearing the Harndens label has been folded up for display. Considering that this extraordinary express cover is the only recorded example of its kind, collectors are advised to overlook the condition factors.

Adams Express Company retained the Harnden name at certain offices in Georgia, because of the Harnden firm's reputation there. The Harnden oval handstamps used at Macon and Savannah are very rare. This cover was evidently sent by Adams (Harnden) messenger from Americus, Georgia, to the office at Louisville. As required by regulations, Confederate postage was prepaid. The Adams office at Louisville correctly applied new stamps -- it is not clear why the letter was re-rated 6c rather than 3c -- and they put it into the regular Federal mails for New York City.

Special Routes Census No. N-AD-38. Ex Nunnelley

E. 3,000-4,000
12,500
Back to Top
57
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 57, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAtlanta Ga., 5c Black entire (6XU5), Atlanta Ga., 5c Black entire (6XU5)Atlanta Ga., 5c Black entire (6XU5). Clearly struck provisional handstamp on "Adams Southern Express" black on buff imprint cover to Dr. Lyman Brooks, Acworth N.H., manuscript "D.H./Brooks" express agent's notation partly covered by stamp -- "D.H." indicates no charge for express service and "Brooks" is possibly a relative of the addressee -- bold strike of "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 12, 1861" circular datestamp, pencil "3" for U.S. postage, 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26) tied by blue grid, matching "Louisville Ky. Aug. 3" double-circle datestamp, blue label has been lifted from back of cover, headed "The Adams Express Company, S. A. Jones, Agent, Louisville, Ky.", giving instructions to northern correspondents for sending letters to the South, very slight edgewear, slightly reduced at left

EXTREMELY FINE. THE FINER OF TWO RECORDED COVERS CARRIED BY EXPRESS ACROSS THE LINES WITH CONFEDERATE POSTAGE PAID BY THE ATLANTA POSTMASTER'S PROVISIONAL HANDSTAMP.

Very few covers are recorded with Confederate provisional stamps or markings used in conjunction with across-the-lines express service. This group includes the provisionals of Atlanta (handstamp), Houston (handstamp), Lynchburg (press-printed entire), Memphis (adhesive), Mobile (adhesive), Montgomery (handstamp), Nashville (adhesive and handstamp) and New Orleans (adhesive). Two Atlanta provisional covers are recorded: the cover offered here (Special Routes Census No. N-AD-42) and the cover last sold as part of the Gallagher collection (Siegel Sale 801, lot 71, Census No. N-AD-72). The cover offered here is not only more desirable due to its condition and the presence of the original label, but it might be the only cover extant. The ex-Gallagher cover was stolen from a dealer, Stanley M. Piller, and was not among the material later recovered.

Information about the addressee, Dr. Lyman Brooks, can be found at http://vermontcivilwar.org/units/16/brooks-ng.php. Dr. Brooks was a distinguished physician in Acworth, New Hampshire. The agent's endorsement "Brooks" appears on this and other express covers, all of which originated at or passed through Atlanta. The fact that the address and agent's notation are in the same hand, and that they share the surname Brooks, strongly suggests a family relationship.

Special Routes Census No. N-AD-42. Illustrated in Shenfield book (p. 21). Ex Brooks, "Stonewall" (Kuphal), Haas and Birkinbine. Featured on the cover of a 1960 Samuel C. Paige auction catalogue and in the Siegel 1967 Rarities of the World sale.

E. 15,000-20,000
16,000
Back to Top
58
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 58, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Co. Charlotte N.C. Jul. 8, Adams Express Co. Charlotte N.C. Jul. 8Adams Express Co. Charlotte N.C. Jul. 8. Lightly-inked strike of red oval datestamp ("Charlotte, N.C." is faint but readable) and bold "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 13, 1861" circular datestamp on 3c Red on Buff Nesbitt entire (U10) northbound to Commodore Robert F. Stockton in care of railroad manager William H. Gatzmer in Philadelphia, 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26), bright color and choice centering, tied by blue grid with matching "Louisville Ky. Jul. 14, 1861" circular datestamp, blue "Paid" and "10" handstamp for C.S.A. rate (U.S. stamp affixed over "10"), express agent's manuscript "Pd r/S/B" coded rate notation, minor flap tears and sealed tear at top left

FINE. THIS IS THE ONLY RECORDED EXAMPLE OF THE ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY'S CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA, OFFICE OVAL HANDSTAMP AND, FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF A POSTAL STATIONERY COLLECTOR, A VERY RARE ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS USE OF THE NESBITT ENTIRE.

The addressee, Commodore Robert F. Stockton, was a delegate to the unsuccessful Peace Conference of 1861 that attempted to settle the secession crisis; instead the American Civil War began later that year. In 1863, he was appointed to command the New Jersey militia when the Confederate Army invaded Pennsylvania. He died in 1866.

Special Routes Census No. N-AD-19 (illustrated on p. 46). Ex Shenfield (and illustrated in his book, p. 22) and Simon. Shenfield note on back "Only example known of Charlotte Adams office. Never saw another 1855 envelope used this way". Accompanied by a 1942 Stamps article by Lawrence L. Shenfield announcing the discovery of this cover.

E. 5,000-7,500
3,500
Back to Top
59
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 59, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressNashville Tenn., 5c Carmine (61X2), Nashville Tenn., 5c Carmine (61X2)Nashville Tenn., 5c Carmine (61X2). Three large margins, barely in along right frameline, light shade, tied by blue "Postage Paid" handstamp and bold black "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 4, 1861" circular datestamp on "The Adams Express Company" imprinted buff cover northbound from Joseph Knowles in Nashville to his daughter Annie in Warren R.I., blue "Adams Express Co. Nashville Aug. 3" oval datestamp and pencil "2" (two bits, 25c express fee) applied by Adams Nashville office, 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26) affixed at Adams Louisville office and tied by blue grid with matching "Louisville Ky. Aug. 5" double-circle datestamp, 5c has a long sealed vertical tear, 3c minor faults

VERY FINE APPEARANCE. ONE OF SIX RECORDED COVERS WITH THE 5-CENT NASHVILLE ADHESIVE PROVISIONAL USED IN COMBINATION WITH UNITED STATES POSTAGE.

Very few covers are recorded with Confederate provisional stamps or markings used in conjunction with across-the-lines express service. This group includes the provisionals of Atlanta (handstamp), Houston (handstamp), Lynchburg (press-printed entire), Memphis (adhesive), Mobile (adhesive), Montgomery (handstamp), Nashville (adhesive and handstamp) and New Orleans (adhesive).

This South-to-North express cover is one of six recorded with the 5c Nashville adhesive provisional and U.S. stamps used together. Five are listed in the Special Routes book (Census Nos. S-AD-38, N-AD-48, 73, 81, 83). A sixth cover recently came to light, which has a "The Southern Express Company" oval handstamp (both the marking and the cover were unknown to the authors at the time the Special Routes book was published). In addition to the 5c covers, there are two Nashville 10c provisional combinations carried by Adams. Two of the six covers, including the one offered here, are from the Knowles correspondence to Rhode Island. Two other northbound covers have Adams and Louisville post office markings with identical dates (Aug. 21 and 22); one is addressed to Minnesota and the other to Kentucky. The fifth cover is a North-to-South usage to Cleveland Tenn., dated July 27 at Louisville. Adams was required to pay Confederate postage, but letters never actually entered the mails at Nashville.

Special Routes Census No. N-AD-48 (illustrated on p. 48). Ex Weatherly and Simon.

E. 10,000-15,000
9,000
Back to Top
60
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 60, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Co. Nashville Jul. 8, Adams Express Co. Nashville Jul. 8Adams Express Co. Nashville Jul. 8. Partly clear strike of blue oval datestamp on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) northbound to Gilmanton N.H., bold strike of "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. Jul. 10 [01] 1861" circular datestamp, manuscript "2/- C.H.P." express charge (two bits, or 25c) -- "C.H.P." are the initials of Charles H. Phelps, the express company agent in Augusta, who was later prosecuted in Confederate District Court in Savannah for transporting letters in violation of the law -- "PAID 10" straightline handstamp applied at Augusta to indicate C.S.A. postage paid, blue crayon "23" of uncertain meaning, Very Fine, an attractive across-the-lines express cover, Special Routes Census No. N-AD-13, ex Everett

E. 1,500-2,000
1,200
Back to Top
61
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 61, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Co. Nashville, Jul. 25 (1861), Adams Express Co. Nashville, Jul. 25 (1861)Adams Express Co. Nashville, Jul. 25 (1861). Mostly clear strike of blue oval datestamp, pencil "Ex B/DH Alva" (Express Business) notation on blue folded letter from James E. Saunders (an aide and personal friend to General Nathan Bedford Forrest) to "The Agent of Adams Express, Louisville, Kentucky", datelined "Nashville July 24/61", the writer is inquiring about the status of "several Liverpool letters...forwarded by Adams Express to Messrs. Fowler & Stanard of Mobile by way of Louisville, and have not yet been received.", the Adams agent in Louisville, S. A. Jones, replied on July 25, "We forwarded a large Liverpool & think there were several letters for the address which you enquire about. Letters are not detained at this point", evidently put inside another envelope and mailed to James E. Saunders in Courtland Ala. as requested

VERY FINE. AN EXTREMELY RARE ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY COVER CARRIED ON OFFICIAL BUSINESS BETWEEN OFFICES IN NASHVILLE AND LOUISVILLE.

Special Routes Census No. N-AD-31. Ex Solomon and Birkinbine

E. 2,000-3,000
1,500
Back to Top
62
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 62, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 18, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 18, 1861Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 18, 1861. Bold circular datestamp on small northbound cover to Mrs. Charles Ellet (a well-known Virginia family) in Georgetown D.C., perfectly clear strike of "Paid 10" handstamp applied at Lynchburg Va., manuscript "Paid 2/ 6/C" express charge (two bits, or 25c), 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26) applied by sender and cancelled by Adams circular datestamp, another 3c applied by Adams office in Louisville and tied by blue grid with matching "Louisville Ky. Aug. 20" circular datestamp, trivial wrinkle in overlying 3c stamp

EXTREMELY FINE. ONE OF THREE RECORDED ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY COVERS ORIGINATING IN LYNCHBURG AND CARRIED ACROSS THE LINES, OF WHICH TWO HAVE UNITED STATES STAMPS.

The three recorded covers originating in Lynchburg that were handled by Adams Express Company are listed in the Special Routes book as Census Nos. N-PRE-23 (Precursor period), N-AD-58 and N-AD-75 (the cover offered here). Ex Myerson

E. 2,000-3,000
2,600
Back to Top
63
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 63, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 16, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 16, 1861Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 16, 1861. Partly clear circular datestamp ties vertical pair of 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26), scissors-cut into design at right, on blue folded letter to New York City, "Richmond Va. Jul. 12, 1861" circular datestamp and "PAID/20"%$ C.S.A. double-rate handstamp, first pair rejected and second pair of 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26), upper left corner torn off, tied by blue "Louisville Ky. Jul. 20, 1861" double-circle datestamp, struck again at right, manuscript "50c" express charge in red pencil at bottom and ink at top

RARE DOUBLE-RATE EXPRESS USAGE. THE EARLIEST RECORDED -- AND EVIDENTLY THE FIRST EXPRESS -- FROM RICHMOND.

The letter, datelined at Richmond, July 6, 1861, contains a significant commentary on express service from Richmond: "By private is our only chance now of writing to any of our friends north of the Potomac...We do not know at present how or when we shall get these lines off. The Express Company here is forbid the privilege of taking letters." Second page dated July 10; the writer continues "Not having been able to find a carrier for the annexed lines of the 6th inst. we open it for the purpose of acknowledging the receipt of yours...", content otherwise refers to blockade, difficulties with commerce, and draft enclosed.

This letter documents a ban on letter express service in Richmond prior to July 12, 1861. No other express covers are known from Richmond prior to or on this date (one posted on July 13 is recorded). Based on the contemporary first-hand account in this letter, we feel justified in describing this as the first letter express out of Richmond.

Special Routes Census No. N-AD-24. Ex Gallagher

E. 2,000-3,000
2,100
Back to Top
64
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 64, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressNew Orleans to France, Jun. 16, 1861, New Orleans to France, Jun. 16, 1861New Orleans to France, Jun. 16, 1861. Blue folded cover with part of letter from Albin Rochereau, a merchant and battalion chief in the French Legion, an organization of French citizens in New Orleans who defended the city during the Civil War, Rochereau's embossed corner card and docketing confirm place and date of origin, addressed to Bordeaux, France, carried north by Adam's Express (no markings since it was carried inside another envelope), 5c Brown, Ty. II, 10c Green, Ty. V (30A, 35), 10c straddle-pane margin, minor perf toning, tied by grid cancels applied at New York, red "New York Paid 12 Jun. 25" credit datestamp, red "Etats-Unis Serv. Br. Pkt. Calais 9 Juil. 61" transit datestamp and red "P.D." in frame, Paris and Bordeaux backstamps, carried on Cunarder Arabia, departing Boston on June 26 and arriving at Queenstown on July 6

VERY FINE. A COLORFUL AND CHOICE COVER SENT FROM CONFEDERATE NEW ORLEANS TO FRANCE, USING ADAMS EXPRESS TO CROSS THE LINES.

Although Adams Express Company typically put mail into the post office at Louisville, there are examples of mail that was carried by Adams all the way to New York City, without any express markings. Such covers can only be identified as Confederate in origin by the contents, as in this prime example.

Signed Ashbook

E. 2,000-3,000
1,800
Back to Top
65
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 65, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressNew Orleans to France, Jul. 12, 1861, New Orleans to France, Jul. 12, 1861New Orleans to France, Jul. 12, 1861. Blue folded cover with Rochereau & Co.'s embossed corner card and docketing that confirm place and date of origin, addressed to La Rochelle, France, carried north by Adam's Express (no markings since it was carried inside another envelope), three 5c Brown, Ty. II (30A) tied by red grids applied at New York, red "New York Paid 12 Jul. 23" credit datestamp, red "Etats-Unis Serv. Br. Pkt. Calais 8 Aout. 61" transit datestamp and red "P.D." in frame, Paris-Bordeaux and La Rochelle backstamps, carried on Cunarder Canada, departing Boston on July 24 and arriving at Queenstown on August 3

VERY FINE. A RARE COVER SENT FROM CONFEDERATE NEW ORLEANS TO FRANCE, USING ADAMS EXPRESS TO CROSS THE LINES.

Although Adams Express Company typically put mail into the post office at Louisville, there are examples of mail that was carried by Adams all the way to New York City, without any express markings. Such covers can only be identified as Confederate in origin by the contents, as with this letter from Rochereau & Co. to Hivert-Pellevoisin, a producer of Cognac and brandies.

E. 1,500-2,000
2,100
Back to Top
66
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 66, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Co. Baltimore, Md. Jul. 11, 1861, Adams Express Co. Baltimore, Md. Jul. 11, 1861Adams Express Co. Baltimore, Md. Jul. 11, 1861. Mostly clear strike of circular datestamp with "Baltimore, Md." sharp and unobscured, two strikes of "Paid" straightline handstamp applied at Baltimore on 3c Red on Buff Star Die entire (U27) southbound to W. W. Fife in New Bern N.C., blue "Adams Express Co. Augusta, Ga. Jul. 18" oval datestamp, entered the C.S.A. mails with "Augusta Ga. Jul. 18" double-circle datestamp and "Paid 10" straightline handstamp for C.S.A. rate, quarter-inch and half-inch tears skillfully sealed, lightened stain spot

VERY FINE APPEARANCE. ONE OF SEVEN RECORDED EXAMPLES OF THE ADAMS BALTIMORE OFFICE DATESTAMP, OF WHICH THREE WERE DATESTAMPED AT THE ADAMS OFFICE IN AUGUSTA. A WONDERFUL COMBINATIN OF MARKINGS.

Adams made extensive use of its own distribution network and relied less on the postal systems for delivery. Initially, Adams' southbound mails were collected at New York, Baltimore or Boston and bagged for delivery to the major distributing offices in the C.S.A. at Augusta, Memphis or Knoxville. Northbound mails were apparently handled similarly in the reverse direction. These bags were not opened in transit through Louisville or Nashville, so surviving letters carry no express markings from either city unless they originate from them. On July 4, 1861, the C.S.A. seized all of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad rolling stock in Tennessee, so the trains no longer crossed the lines. From this point forward, couriers carried the mail across the lines on horseback. This also entailed a change in how Adams handled its express mail, as Louisville increasingly became the major distributing office for both northbound and southbound mail. Accordingly, Adams' Louisville express markings begin to appear on all southbound mail starting around July 17 and on all northbound mail starting around July 4. Further, Nashville became the principal distributing office in the C.S.A. for southbound mail starting around August 1. The cover offered here is an early and rare example of routing through Augusta with the Augusta office's oval datestamp used in conjunction with the Baltimore origin marking. Only three such covers are recorded in the Special Routes book (Census Nos. S-AD-13, 16 and 20).

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-20 (illustrated on p. 43).

E. 3,000-4,000
3,500
Back to Top
67
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 67, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressThe Adams Express Co. Boston Aug. 2, The Adams Express Co. Boston Aug. 2The Adams Express Co. Boston Aug. 2. Clearly struck circular datestamp and "Paid J.W.R." double-circle with manuscript "25", the Paid marking applied at Boston to indicate prepayment of 25c express charge on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) southbound to Turpin & Yarbrough in Richmond Va., "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. Aug. 6, 1861" circular datestamp, blue "Paid" (on front and back), matching "10" C.S.A. rate handstamp applied at Nashville but no Nashville circular datestamp, waterstains, reduced at left and small mended corner at bottom right

FINE. ONE OF THREE ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS COVERS WITH THE ADAMS BOSTON OFFICE DATESTAMP.

The Special Routes Census lists only three across-the-lines covers from Boston (Census Nos. S-AD-18, 54 and 66). The addressees, Turpin & Yarbrough, were partners in a tobacco company in Richmond and owned the warehouse that was used as the 2nd Alabama Hospital, located at the southwest corner of 25th and Franklin Streets. The following information and a photograph of the Yarbrough house is on the internet: "The house was built by William Yarbrough, who, with Miles Turpin, owned Turpin and Yarbrough Tobacco Co., housed in the nearby Pohlig building. The partners married sisters and built identical houses next door to one another. 'Nobody wanted to have the nicer house or the worse house,' says Waite, the director of the Museum of the Confederacy. Work was completed in the summer of 1861; the war had started in April. By the end of the 19th century, the basement had been converted to a doctor's office and examination rooms, and the mosaic tile floor in that room today dates to that period. In the 1940s and '50s, the main house and two-story servants' quarters held 13 apartments. That was before S. Douglas Fleet bought the property in 1967 and began to restore it."

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-54. Ex Brandebury, Knapp and Simon

E. 3,000-4,000
2,000
Back to Top
68
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 68, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-York, Adams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-YorkAdams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-York. Large blue oval handstamp and black "Adams Express Company, Knoxville Tenn. Jun. 29" oval datestamp on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) southbound to David Cleage in Athens Tenn., Manhattan Bank brown oval corner card, manuscript "35/1" express charge, sender's routing "Pr. Adams & Co.", slight natural creasing in face of envelope

EXTREMELY FINE. AN EXTREMELY RARE COMBINATION OF ADAMS EXPRESS NEW YORK AND KNOXVILLE OFFICE MARKINGS FOR ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS SERVICE TO TENNESSEE DURING THAT STATE'S NINE DAYS AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE. THIS COVER, WITH BOTH MARKINGS ON THE FACE, IS THE ONE OF THE FINEST OF ITS KIND.

Only a few covers are recorded with this combination of Adams office markings, which were applied in transit entirely outside the U.S. and Confederate postal systems. Adams also had the option of placing letters into the Nashville post office for delivery by regular Confederate mails. This cover reached Tennessee during the brief Independent Statehood period, from June 24 to July 2, 1861.

The Adams Knoxville and New York ovals are extremely rare, and collectors should be aware that a number of clever fakes were handled by John A. Fox, which have only recently been properly identified (these fakes also bear the David Cleage address, a known correspondence).

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-3 (illustrated on p. 39). Ex Lehman, Engel, Jarrett and Birkinbine

E. 5,000-7,500
11,500
Back to Top
69
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 69, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-York, Adams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-YorkAdams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-York. Large blue oval handstamp clearly struck on folded letter from Bremen, Germany, to Richmond Va., datelined "Bremen 12 June 1861" from a European trading firm to James Thomas Jr., a prominent Richmond tobacco merchant, carried on the Cunarder Europa, departing Liverpool on June 15 and arriving in Boston on June 26, bold "Forwarded by Oelrichs & Co. New-York" oval handstamp on back (the flap is partly missing and torn thru marking, but the entire handstamp is intact), carried by Adams across the lines, entered the C.S.A. mails as a drop-rate letter with bold "Richmond Va. Jul. 5, 1861" circular datestamp and "Paid 2" straightline handstamp

VERY FINE. THIS IS THE ONLY RECORDED EXPRESS COVER CARRIED ACROSS THE LINES AFTER JUNE 1, 1861, THAT WAS PLACED INTO THE CONFEDERATE MAILS AS A 2-CENT DROP RATE LETTER. IT IS ALSO ONE OF ONLY THREE ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS COVERS WITH CLEAR EVIDENCE OF EUROPEAN ORIGIN.

As early as April and May 1861, commercial firms in Europe began sending mail to their correspondents in the South by express. A few covers are recorded during the Precursor Private Express period that were handled in the same way as the cover offered here (placed into Richmond post office as drop letters). However, it appears that once the expresses started advertising service from June 15, the practice of dropping mail into the destination post office was curtailed.

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-5. Ex Peters

E. 2,000-3,000
2,400
Back to Top
70
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 70, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-York, Adams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-YorkAdams Express Company, Great Eastern, Western & Southern Express Forwarders, New-York. Large blue oval handstamp on backflap of 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) southbound to Rev. A. J. Leavenworth in Petersburg Va., blue "Adams Express Co. Nashville Jul. 7" and black "Adams Express Company, Knoxville Tenn. Jul. 8" oval datestamps, manuscript "2/-" (two bits, or 25c) express charge, blue crayon "13", receipt docketing "Prof. J. H. Agnew 1861 July", bottom flap opened to show New York marking, small sealed tear at upper left

VERY FINE. AN EXTREMELY RARE COMBINATION OF ADAMS EXPRESS OFFICE MARKINGS -- NEW YORK TO NASHVILLE TO KNOXVILLE -- FOR ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS SERVICE TO PETERSBURG, VIRGINIA.

Only a few covers are recorded with this combination of Adams office markings, which were applied in transit entirely outside the U.S. and Confederate postal systems. Adams also had the option of placing letters into the Nashville post office for delivery by regular Confederate mails.

The Adams Knoxville and New York ovals are extremely rare, and collectors should be aware that a number of clever fakes were handled by John A. Fox, which have only recently been properly identified (these fakes bear the David Cleage address, a known correspondence).

The addressee, Reverend Abner Johnson Leavenworth, was at this time the principal and proprietor of the Leavenworth Academy and Collegiate Seminary for Young Ladies.

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-14. Ex Emerson, Brooks and Gallagher

E. 5,000-7,500
3,000
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71
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 71, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. Philadelphia Pa. Aug. 3, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. Philadelphia Pa. Aug. 3, 1861Adams Ex. Co. Philadelphia Pa. Aug. 3, 1861. Red circular datestamp with year in manuscript boldly struck on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) to Dr. Charles Morfit in Norfolk Va., "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Aug. 6, 1861" circular datestamp, blue "Nashville Ten. Aug. 8, 1861" circular datestamp and matching "Paid" and "10" handstamp for C.S.A. rate, neat Aug. 14 receipt docketing, sealed tear at top and slight crease thru embossed stamp

FINE. A COLORFUL AND EXTREMELY RARE COMBINATION OF MARKINGS, INCLUDING THE ADAMS PHILADELPHIA OFFICE DATESTAMP, OF WHICH SEVEN EXAMPLES ARE RECORDED.

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-53 (illustrated on p. 55). Ex MacBride and Meroni.

E. 2,000-3,000
1,500
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72
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 72, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressNashville Tenn., 10c Green (61X6), Nashville Tenn., 10c Green (61X6)Nashville Tenn., 10c Green (61X6). Two huge margins, framelines touched at top and right, deep shade, scissors-cut at top left, tied by blue "Adams Express Co. Nashville Aug. 1" oval datestamp on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) to Rev. A. J. Leavenworth in Petersburg Va., "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861" circular datestamp cancels 3c embossed stamp, small red manuscript "2" express charge (two bits, or 25c), blue "10" handstamp applied at Petersburg to indicate postage due (presumably the letter was over the half-ounce weight limit), receipt docketing "Prof. Agnew & Sundry others", small part of backflap removed, light soiling and edgewear (slight improvement at top right corner)

VERY FINE. ONE OF THREE RECORDED ADAMS EXPRESS COMPANY COVERS WITH THE NASHVILLE 10-CENT PROVISIONAL, OF WHICH ONLY TWO ARE MIXED FRANKINGS WITH UNITED STATES POSTAGE. AN OUTSTANDING COVER THAT COMBINES THE RAREST ELEMENTS OF PHILATELY AND POSTAL HISTORY.

Adams Express Company was required to ensure the prepayment of government postage (Federal and Confederate), although the letter was carried outside the regular mails. Very few covers are recorded with Confederate provisional stamps or markings used in conjunction with across-the-lines express service. This group includes the provisionals of Atlanta (handstamp), Houston (handstamp), Lynchburg (press-printed entire), Memphis (adhesive), Mobile (adhesive), Montgomery (handstamp), Nashville (adhesive and handstamp) and New Orleans (adhesive).

Only three across-the-lines express covers are recorded with the Nashville 10c adhesive provisional (Special Routes Census Nos. S-AD-44, 45 and 46), all dated at Nashville on August 1. Only two of the 10c covers are mixed frankings (the third is used alone). These two Nashville 10c mixed-franking covers carried by Adams, both North-to-South usages, are the only 10c adhesive Confederate provisionals known in combination with United States postage. As such, they are quite significant artifacts from this remarkable period of postal history.

Our records contain six genuine covers with the Nashville 10c Green provisional: 1) Tied by Aug. 1 (1861) Adams Express oval, to Hardy & Bros., Norfolk Va.; 2) Tied by Sep. 15, 1861, Nashville datestamp, to Shelbyville Tenn., ex Caspary; 3) 5c & 10c used together, tied by Aug. 21, 1861, Nashville datestamp, to D. Cleage, Athens Tenn., ex Caspary, Boshwit; 4) Tied by Aug. 1 (1861) Adams Express oval, used on 3c Star Die entire to Rev. Leavenworth, Petersburg Va., ex Kilbourne (Siegel Sale 815, lot 104, realized $90,000 hammer), the cover offered here; 5) Tied by Aug. 1 (1861) Adams Express oval, used on 3c Star Die with additional 3c 1857, to Albert F. Ryan, Norfolk Va., ex Gallagher; and 6) Tied by "10" rate handstamp, Sep. 18, 1861, Nashville datestamp, on building corner card cover to Thos. H. Caldwell, Shelbyville Tenn., ex Needham, Kimmell, Haas, Rudy (Siegel Sale 874, lot 117, realized $25,000 hammer).

The addressee, Reverend Abner Johnson Leavenworth, was at this time the principal and proprietor of the Leavenworth Academy and Collegiate Seminary for Young Ladies.

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-46 (illustrated on p. 55). Illustrated in Shenfield book (p. 23). Ex Antrim (acquired by the Kilbournes in 1958), Kilbourne and Kramer. With 1999 P.F. certificate

E. 75,000-100,000
60,000
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73
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 73, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressMemphis Tenn., 5c Red (56X2), Memphis Tenn., 5c Red (56X2)Memphis Tenn., 5c Red (56X2). Partly cut to shape at upper right, other sides clear to slightly in, tied by "Memphis Ten. Jul. 15(?), 1861" circular datestamp on 3c Red on Buff Star Die entire (U27) southbound to Marcian Seavey in care of Rev. Charles Collins in Greenwood Tenn., clear strikes of "The Adams Express Co. Boston Jul. 6" circular datestamp and "Paid J.W.R." double-circle with manuscript "25", the Paid marking applied at Boston to indicate prepayment of 25c express charge, vertical fold and slight wear at upper left corner

VERY FINE. THE ONLY RECORDED EXAMPLE OF ANY CONFEDERATE POSTMASTER'S PROVISIONAL ON AN ADAMS EXPRESS COVER FROM BOSTON, AND THE ONLY RECORDED MEMPHIS POSTMASTER'S PROVISIONAL ON AN ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS COVER.

Very few covers are recorded with Confederate provisional stamps or markings used in conjunction with across-the-lines express service. This group includes the provisionals of Atlanta (handstamp), Houston (handstamp), Lynchburg (press-printed entire), Memphis (adhesive), Mobile (adhesive), Montgomery (handstamp), Nashville (adhesive and handstamp) and New Orleans (adhesive). This is the only recorded Memphis across-the-lines express usage and the only provisional/express usage from the Adams Boston office. In fact, the Special Routes Census lists only three across-the-lines covers from Boston (Census Nos. S-AD-18, 54 and 66).

The addressee, Marcian Seavey, had recently lost his wife when this cover was mailed (nee Eliza Ruggles, died November 28, 1860). The Reverend Charles Collins, in whose care the letter was addressed, moved to Tennessee in 1860 after resigning as president of Dickinson College. He was proprietor and president of the State Female College near Memphis in Tennessee.

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-18 (illustrated on. p. 56). Ex Kilbourne

E. 10,000-15,000
10,000
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74
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 74, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861. Clear strike of circular datestamp on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) southbound to Mrs. Rebecca F. Worthington in care of Charles Worthington in Corpus Christi, Texas, black "Houston Tex. Aug. 20, 1861" circular datestamp and red "Houston Tex. Paid 5" provisional handstamp (40XU1) struck en route where Adams put the letter into the mails, with original letter enclosure dated July 24 from Rebecca Worthington's mother, who writes from "the pretty town of Pittsfield" but instructs her daughter to address letters to 37 Irving Place in New York City, the letter mentions the First Battle of Bull Run and expresses strong anti-war sentiment -- the addressee's husband, Charles Worthington, was a Unionist living in Texas during the war

VERY FINE. THIS IS THE ONLY RECORDED ACROSS-THE-LINES EXPRESS COVER WITH THE HOUSTON POSTMASTER' S PROVISIONAL HANDSTAMP.

Very few covers are recorded with Confederate provisional stamps or markings used in conjunction with across-the-lines express service. This group includes the provisionals of Atlanta (handstamp), Houston (handstamp), Lynchburg (press-printed entire), Memphis (adhesive), Mobile (adhesive), Montgomery (handstamp), Nashville (adhesive and handstamp) and New Orleans (adhesive). This is the only recorded express cover with the Houston provisional marking, which was obviously applied en route.

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-43 (illustrated on p. 54). Ex Brigham, "Camina" (Castillejos) and Guggenheim

E. 5,000-7,500
4,000
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75
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 75, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Co. Augusta, Ga. Aug. 2, Adams Express Co. Augusta, Ga. Aug. 2Adams Express Co. Augusta, Ga. Aug. 2. Clear strike of blue oval datestamp on 3c Red on Buff Star Die entire (U27) southbound from E. S. Zevely in Pleasant Grove Md. to his daughter, Mrs. Sophia J. Butner, in Salem N.C., "Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 29, 1861" circular datestamp cancels 3c embossed stamp, manuscript "Paid 25 cts" and "Paid 2/S F" express fee notations, entered the C.S.A. mails with "Augusta Ga. Aug. 2" double-circle datestamp and "Paid 10" straightline handstamp for C.S.A. rate, Adams' blue-gray label on back with instructions for sending mail "to the Confederate States", opened for display, some overall toning, minor edgewear and small tears

VERY FINE. AN OUTSTANDING NORTH-TO-SOUTH EXPRESS COVER WITH THE ADAMS AUGUSTA OVAL DATESTAMP AND MAILING-INSTRUCTIONS LABEL.

The addressee, Sophia J. Butner, was the daughter of E. S. Zevely, brother of Third Assistant Postmaster General A. N. Zevely, postmaster of Pleasant Grove, Maryland, and manufacturer of postmarking devices. Zevely probably carried or mailed this envelope to the Adams office in Baltimore. The label on the back gives instructions to correspondents in the North for mailing letters by express to the Confederate States. This label was applied by Adams either before the envelope was sold or given to its customers in the North, in which case the instructions apply, or en route to the destination, in which case the instructions are for the wrong side (a corresponding Adams "Letters to the United States" label has never been recorded, according to Walske).

Special Routes Census No. S-AD-39 (misdated JUL 27; illustrated on p. 222). Ex Simon

E. 4,000-5,000
4,250
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76
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 76, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 30, 1861. Mostly clear strike of circular datestamp ties 3c Dull Red, Ty. III (26), straddle-pane margin at left, on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) southbound to the Rev. Samuel H. Speer in Canton Miss., routing notation "Per Adams Express" in another hand, partly readable "Grand Junction Ten. Aug. 5" double-circle datestamp (day in manuscript), "Paid" and "5" C.S.A. rate handstamps, docketing "From Mother 1861", notations on back describe the journey from Liverpool to France and on to Bremen, reduced at right, small sealed tear at top, some stain spots, still Fine and presentable, an extremely rare example of southbound express mail that entered the C.S.A. postal system at Grand Junction (the terminus connecting the Mississippi Central and Memphis & Charleston railroad lines), only two examples recorded in the Special Routes Census (this is No. S-AD-42, the other is S-AD-37), the notations on this cover suggest it originated in England, ex Colson and Gallagher

E. 1,000-1,500
650
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77
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 77, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Express Company N.Y, Adams Express Company N.YAdams Express Company N.Y. Blue double-circle handstamp on 3c Red on Buff Star Die entire (U27) from New York City to Washington N.C., manuscript "35/1" express charge, "Wilmington N.C. 3 Jul." (1861) circular datestamp with "Paid" and "10" C.S.A. rate handstamps, original letter enclosed, datelined New York May 22, 1861, re-dated in red "Retd to RMB&Co. 22 June" indicating it was returned by the U.S. D.L.O. as undeliverable (because the postal route was suspended) and then re-mailed by Adams Express, letter regarding high prices for resin and references to blockade "Schr. Arlington not here yet" and "All goods here will be safe every way", long sealed tear across upper right corner, also some staining, this important postal artifact could easily be restored, it is the only recorded express cover routed thru the port of Wilmington N.C. (the blockade was not initiated there until July 14), ex Emerson, Brooks, Knapp, Richey, Antrim and Hollowbush

E. 1,500-2,000
750
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78
c
Sale Number 988, Lot Number 78, Across-the-Lines Private Express Mail: Adams ExpressAdams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 23, 1861, Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 23, 1861Adams Ex. Co. * Louisville, Ky. * Jul. 23, 1861. Bold strike on 3c Red on White Star Die entire (U26) southbound to Mobile Ala., manuscript "2/-" (two bits or 25c) express fee, "Paid" in circle handstamp applied at Mobile, slight toning, Fine and rare, only two southbound covers are recorded with the Mobile "Paid" handstamp (both addressed to Mobile, dated Louisville Jul. 23 and 24), they were apparently carried in the Adams network until they reached Mobile and then put into the post office there (and marked "Paid"), two northbound Adams covers with the Mobile "Paid" are also recorded, Special Routes Census No. S-AD-30

E. 750-1,000
475
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