ONE OF THREE RECORDED MISSIONARY COVERS ADDRESSED TO SAN FRANCISCO, WHERE THE FANCY "SHIP 6" MARKING WAS APPLIED, AND ONE OF THE FINEST QUALITY 5-CENT MISSIONARIES ON COVER
Ten 5c Missionary covers are recorded in our census (Appendix I), including the Dawson cover (lot 9) bearing the 2c Missionary, which leaves only nine 5c covers for all practical purposes. Of the nine, one is a front only with a repaired stamp, and two others have repaired stamps. All of the remaining six covers have stamps with slight faults or, in the case of the one sound example, the frameline is cut into at one side. This cover is one of the finest.
Only three Missionary covers are addressed to San Francisco as their final destination, each franked with the 5c stamp. The "Ship 6" handstamp was applied to each incoming cover by the San Francisco post office to indicate the correct postage due for a ship letter delivered within the port of entry. The 2c ship captain's fee was paid in cash, presumably in advance at Honolulu. This letter was carried on the Excel, which left Honolulu on January 22, 1853, and arrived in San Francisco on February 16 (Gregory).
The writer of this letter, A. H. Spencer, started the East Maui Plantation on the island of Maui in 1849, in partnership with Dr. Robert W. Wood, a physician and capitalist who invested heavily in Hawaii's sugar industry. In his letter, Spencer makes several interesting comments: "[My family] came out in the R. B. Forbes arrived last Jany. They made the passage in one Hundred day the quickest passage ever made [around the Horn]...Have you escaped all the destructive fires that San Francisco has been scourged with...The greatest trouble with the planters is the uncertainty of the market and the large duty we are obliged to pay. If they could annex the Islands we should then be in the market...This is but a small speck in the world and it is very dull times...I have just heard of the Election of Pierce & King and Horatio Seymour Gov. of New York also the death of Daniel Webster."
Ex Henry J. Crocker, Frank C. Atherton, The Honolulu Academy of Arts. Illustrated in Hawaiian Numerals, H. J. Crocker, and The Stamps of Hawaii, Meyer-Harris.
Census No. 2-I-COV-71 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 2-I-On Cover-1; Bash 2-1. With 1995 P.F. certificate
ONE OF THE FINEST 5-CENT MISSIONARY COVERS AND THE EARLIER OF TWO RECORDED MISSIONARY COVERS BEARING A HANDSTAMPED FORWARDER'S MARKING. ALSO THE EARLIEST OF THE THREE RECORDED MISSIONARY COVERS ADDRESSED TO SAN FRANCISCO
Ten 5c Missionary covers are recorded in our census (Appendix I), including the Dawson cover (lot 9) bearing the 2c Missionary - essentially leaving nine 5c covers for collectors. The three known covers to San Francisco are present in the Advertiser collection, this being the earliest use. Of the 30 recorded Missionary covers, only two were handstamped by forwarders in Hawaii: the Porter & Ogden cover offered here, and the G. D. Gilman (Lahaina) cover (Census No. 2-I-COV-70).
The "Ship 6" marking indicates the correct postage due for a ship letter addressed to the port of entry. The 2c ship captain's fee was paid in cash, presumably in advance at Honolulu. The letter was carried on the Zoe, which cleared Honolulu on September 11, 1852, and arrived in San Francisco on October 2 (Gregory). This is one of the few Missionary covers correctly endorsed with the ship's name, "Per `Zoe'", reflecting the sender's familiarity with sailing schedules. In this brief letter from Porter & Ogden, they acknowledge the favor of Dupuy & Foulkes in forwarding two letters addressed to them and offer to reciprocate.
Ex Henry J. Crocker, Frank C. Atherton, The Honolulu Academy of Arts. Illustrated in Hawaiian Numerals, H. J. Crocker.
Census No. 2-II-COV-72 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 2-II-On Cover-2; Bash 2-7. With 1995 P.F. certificate
THE ONLY EXAMPLE OF THE PAPERMAKER'S CREST ON A MISSIONARY STAMP AND ONE OF THE FINEST OF THE TEN RECORDED 13-CENT "HAWAIIAN POSTAGE" COVERS
Ten 13c "Hawaiian Postage" Missionary covers are recorded in our census (Appendix I), including the partially charred Dawson cover with a strip of three (lot 29) and another cover with a small fragment that we record for academic purposes, but cannot count among collectable examples. Only three of the eight singles on cover are completely sound; in fact, four of the eight stamps are repaired or defective. This stamp shows a clear impression of the embossed papermaker's crest, indicating that stationery of British manufacture was used.
The use of blue ink at the San Francisco post office indicates an 1852 year-date for this cover. The Zoe cleared Honolulu on November 22, 1852, and arrived in San Francisco on December 12, carrying 2,341 letters, the largest volume of mail in the post office's history to that date (Gregory).
Ex William H. Crocker, Adm. Frederic R. Harris, Maurice Burrus.
Census No. 3-II-COV-146 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 3-II-On Cover-2; Bash 3-6. With 1995 P.F. certificate
THE UNIQUE RECORDING EXAMPLE OF THE "U.S. POSTAGE PAID" MARKING ON A MISSIONARY STAMP AND ONE OF THE OUTSTANDING MISSIONARY COVERS FROM A POSTAL HISTORIAN'S PERSPECTIVE
The red oval "U.S./POSTAGE PAID" handstamp was used infrequently in 1852 and 1853 on outbound mail from Honolulu to the United States, as evidenced by this cover, the stampless cover to Russia (see Part 2, lot 2136), and the pair of 1853 13c Kamehameha III stamps off cover (see Part 1, lot ##). In 1859 the device was altered by removing the "U.S." and was used exclusively to cancel Numeral Issues on inter-island mail at the Honolulu post office. A detail of this marking with and without "U.S." is shown in Figure 1. Prior to the discovery of this cover by Floyd W. Fitzpatrick, circa 1951, the oval marking was not known to exist on the Missionaries.
The addressee, Charles Finney Gulick, died in 1854 at the young age of 20. The docketing at the left side of the envelope reads, "Recd from Mr. Wilcox June 15th/52. Written on board the Esther May." The sender of this cover was Abner Wilcox, a teacher in charge of the Waioli Select School, who visited the United States with his son in 1851. He returned to Kauai on April 4, 1852. The letter in this cover (no longer present) was evidently written en route aboard the Esther May (see Figure 2). The cover was carried to the United States on the Noble, which sailed from Honolulu on April 27, 1852, and arrived on May 15 in San Francisco (Gregory).
Illustrated shortly after its discovery and for the first time in Covers (June 1951).
Census No. 3-I-COV-140 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 3-I-On Cover-7; Bash 3-5. With 1995 P.F. certificate
A VERY FINE 13-CENT "HAWAIIAN POSTAGE" MISSIONARY AND THE ONLY SOUND STAMP AMONG THE FOUR SINGLES TIED BY A CANCELLATION ON COVER
Ten 13c "Hawaiian Postage" Missionary covers are recorded in our census (Appendix I), including the partially charred Dawson cover with the strip of three (lot 29) and a small fragment on cover recorded for academic purposes only. Of the eight singles known on cover, only four are actually tied by a cancellation - three of which are present in the Advertiser collection (the cover offered here and lots 4 and 6). The stamp on this cover is the sound one among them.
This Missionary cover comes from the Reynolds correspondence, which was first described in Mekeel's August 19, 1923 issue. The Economist Stamp Co. was noted as the buyer, and an unnamed individual identified his great-uncle, a naval officer, as the source. Two recorded Missionary covers emanate from the Reynolds correspondence (this cover and Census No. 2-I-COV-74). The likely sender is Stephen Reynolds, a trader who was active on the islands during the 1840s and who became a plantation owner in 1849. Reynolds lost his sanity in 1855 and left the islands.
This 13c cover was carried on the Mary A. Jones from Honolulu on October 4, 1852, and arrived in San Francisco on October 26. The same voyage carried the famous 2c Missionary cover (lot 9) and another 5c Missionary cover (Census No. 2-I-COV-70). The three October 4, 1852, covers, each franked in a different manner, provide instructive evidence of the difference in treatment of Hawaiian mail at the San Francisco post office during this period. This 13c cover, fully prepaid with only Hawaiian postage, arrived with the Mary A. Jones on October 26, but was not postmarked in San Francisco until the mails were prepared for the next regular sailing via Panama - it shows the "CAL." (all upper case with period) style of datestamp in red, dated November 1, the usual first-of-the-month date for mail via Panama. The 2c cover, also fully prepaid, but with U.S. stamps affixed, arrived in San Francisco and was immediately postmarked when the mail was processed on October 27, using the "Cal." (upper/lower case) style of datestamp in black to cancel the U.S. stamps. The 5c cover, with U.S. postage unpaid, was held along with the 13c cover until November 1 for postmarking with the via-Panama mails, but received the "CAL" (all upper-case letters without period) style of datestamp in black, along with a "12" (cent) due marking, also in black. The three pieces of mail arrived together and probably went out on the same eastbound vessel via Panama, but each was handled in a different way by the San Francisco post office, depending on the franking and prepayment involved.
Ex Alfred H. Caspary, Alfred J. Ostheimer III.
Census No. 3-I-COV-142 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 3-I-On Cover-1; Bash 3-3. With 1995 P.F. certificate
THE ONLY MISSIONARY AND KAMEHAMEHA III MIXED-ISSUE FRANKING EXTANT, ACCORDING TO OUR CENSUS
The Kamehameha III stamps were delivered to Honolulu postmaster, Henry M. Whitney, in April 1853 and placed on sale in May. The Missionaries are known on covers dated as late as March 1856; thus, for a period of almost two years the Missionaries and Kamehameha stamps were used concurrently. While there are cancellations common to both issues, only one cover with a combination franking is recorded in our census (Appendix I). There have been past references to two or three such covers, but careful analysis indicates that they were based on the same cover, the one offered here.
Another unique feature of this cover is the Southern address. Of the 30 Missionary covers in our census, only this one is addressed to a U.S. location outside of San Francisco and the Northeastern states. The cover was carried on the Boston, which cleared Honolulu on September 10, 1853, and arrived in San Francisco on October 5 (Gregory).
Sold through J. M. Bartels (1929) and Charles J. Phillips. Possibly ex Ackerman. Ex Robert S. Emerson, John C. Juhring.
Census No. 3-I-COV-143 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 3-I-On Cover-8; Bash 3-8. With 1995 P.F. certificate
THE QUINTESSENTIAL MISSIONARY COVER, SENT FROM HAWAII TO PERSIA BY MARIA WHITNEY POGUE, THE FIRST MISSIONARY DAUGHTER BORN IN THE ISLANDS, AND BEARING A PERFECT EXAMPLE OF THE RARE 13-CENT "H.I. & U.S. POSTAGE" STAMP
Maria Kapule Whitney Pogue (see Figure 2), the daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Samuel Whitney, was the first missionary child born in the Hawaiian Islands (b. October 18, 1820). Her brother, Henry M. Whitney, was Hawaii's first Postmaster-General and the printer of the Missionary stamps. Maria Whitney married John Fawcett Pogue in 1848, four years after his arrival with the Eleventh Company of missionaries. The Pogues moved from the island of Hawaii to Lahainaluna on Maui in 1851 and were stationed there until 1866.
A year after settling in Lahainaluna, Mrs. Pogue wrote this letter to Fidelia Fiske, her former roomate at Mount Holyoke and a missionary colleague. Miss Fiske traveled to Oroomiah in 1843 to join the missionaries working among the Nestorians, a religious group whose ancient views of Christ were regarded by other Christians as heresy. Oroomiah is located on the plain of Oroomiah east of Kurdistan in the northwest region of Persia (see map in Figure #). It was the site of a female seminary, of which Fidelia Fiske became the first principal. The letter from Mrs. Pogue is a lengthy description of news and events of missionary life and compares the Nestorian people to the indigenous Hawaiians in a less-than-favorable light: "The Nestorians, I think, cannot be so degraded, heathenish in all their mental, moral & physical natures [as] are the natives of these Is." Mrs. Pogue also lashes out at the Catholic missions on the Islands: "...if the protestant miss. fail to educate the talent of the Is. the Catholics will not & nothing would rejoice them more than to see this school go down so that they might grasp at once all our pupils & train them for the service of their church." The letter also contains a report on the health of various missionaries, including graphic references to the symptoms of disease.
This letter made a most extraordinary journey across the globe. It was carried from Hawaii on the Mary A. Jones, which cleared Honolulu on July 26, 1852, and arrived in San Francisco on August 15. From San Francisco the prepaid letter was sent in the mails via Panama to Boston, where it was delivered to the missionary house at 33 Pemberton Square. Arrangements were made for letters to be carried back and forth by missionaries traveling between the United States and foreign countries. This letter was carried outside of the mails by vessel across the Atlantic and into the Mediterranean Sea. The journey is described in Faith Working By Love, a memoir of Fidelia Fiske's life (Rev. Daniel T. Fiske, 1868). The ocean voyage brought the missionaries and mail to the port city of Smyrna in Turkey. From there they traveled north across the Aegean Sea to Constantinople, and, after a stop, they continued on the waters of the Black Sea to Trebizond in northeast Turkey. At Trebizond the missionaries prepared for the arduous land-journey to Oroomiah, a distance of approximately 400 miles. Caravans of twenty horses crossed the plains and mountain passes, covering about fifteen to twenty miles per day. About mid-way, the caravan rested at Erzroom, where other missionaries were situated. Then came the last leg of the trip, the dangerous trek across the Kurdish region, which required another two weeks and exposed the missionaries to attacks from Kurds. Upon reaching Oroomiah, the villages of the plains could be seen from the surrounding mountains (see Figure #).
This letter comes from a small group addressed to Fidelia Fiske that was discovered in a sea chest in the basement of a library in Shelburne, Massachusetts, in May 1938 (Bash). Of the recorded covers from the Fiske correspondence, two are franked with Missionaries (both 13c "H.I. & U.S. Postage" stamps) and two others bear Kamehameha III stamps (see lots ## and ##). The stamp on this letter shows a slight double "kiss" print.
There are nine 13c "H.I. & U.S. Postage" Missionary covers recorded in our census (Appendix I), including one in the Reichspost Museum. Of the eight available to collectors, only two have stamps that are sound. Five of the other known covers have repaired stamps and two have minor faults (including the museum's cover). One of the two sound examples is on the letter to Persia offered here; the other sound example is in Europe (Census No. 4-I-COV-192).
Sold through Spencer Anderson after its discovery. Ex Theodore Champion, Alfred F. Lichtenstein, Alfred J. Ostheimer III.
Census No. 4-I-COV-191 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 4-I-On Cover-1; Bash 4-1. With 1995 P.F. certificate
THE ONLY RECORDED MISSIONARY COVER WITH THE RARE CROSSED BARS FANCY CANCELLATION AND ONE OF FOUR UNREPAIRED EXAMPLES OF THE 13-CENT "H.I. & U.S. POSTAGE" STAMP ON COVER, THREE OF WHICH ARE AVAILABLE TO COLLECTORS
Nine 13c "H.I. & U.S. Postage" Missionary covers are recorded in our census (Appendix I), including the Reichspost Museum cover that is unavailable to collectors. Five of the nine Missionary stamps on these covers have been repaired (pieces restored or repaired faults), leaving four sound or slightly faulty examples. The Reichspost Museum cover is among these four, which reduces the available number of unrepaired 13c "H.I. & U.S. Postage" Missionary stamps on covers to three: the Fiske cover to Persia (the previous lot), the cover offered here, and the Burrage cover (Census No. 4-I-COV-192).
The existence of a July 1853 cover from the Reverend Sessions correspondence, franked with the 1853 Kamehameha III issue (Caspary sale, lot 29), suggests that this Missionary cover was postmarked on April 28, 1853. This date corresponds with the sailing dates of the Boston, which cleared Honolulu on April 30, 1853, and arrived in San Francisco on May 26 (Gregory).
Only six Missionary stamps are recorded with the distinctive Crossed Bars fancy cancellation, this being the only example on cover.
Exhibited at the 1889 Paris Exhibition. Ex Henry J. Duveen (sold privately through Charles J. Phillips, 1922-26), Alfred H. Caspary.
Census No. 4-II-COV-193 (Appendix I). Other census references: Brewster 4-II-On Cover-1; Bash 4-6. With 1995 P.F. certificate