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Sale 862 — The D.K. Collection of U.S. Carriers & Locals

Sale Date — Saturday, 31 May, 2003

Category — Carrier Departments (Philadelphia Pa.)

Cat./Est. Value
Sale Number 862, Lot Number 42, Carrier Departments (Philadelphia Pa.)Northern Liberties News Rooms, Sub Post Office, Northern Liberties News Rooms, Sub Post OfficeNorthern Liberties News Rooms, Sub Post Office. Type I circular mark impressed at left on Jan. 30, 1836 folded letter to Turbitville Pa., sender's directive "The Postmaster will forward this letter as soon as it comes to hand", faint red "Phila. 31 Jan." in octagonal frame, red ms. "12-1/2" rate, splits and wear along file fold and folds at sides are reinforced


Prior to 1854, the Northern Liberties area (north of Vine Street) was outside Philadelphia's city limits. Carriers were used to transport mail between outlying areas and the main post office in Philadelphia. The term Sub Post Office refers to a location where letters could be deposited for delivery to the main post office. The Northern Liberties News Rooms, which advertised its services as early as 1833, established a Sub Post Office in 1835. The proprietor at this time was Andrew McMakin. A news item appearing in the October 10, 1835, edition of the Philadelphia Saturday Courier states: "The enterprising, attentive and indefatigable proprietor of that popular establishment, the Northern Liberties Free Admission News Room, has found the business of his Sub Post Office so much on the increase, as to induce him to prepare a new and appropriate stamp, which we perceive is now imprinted upon all letters deposited at his office." (from research by Elliott Perry and J. William Middendorf). Later advertisements link the Sub Post Office in Northern Liberties with the main Philadelphia post office, which reinforces its status as an authorized drop point for mail. The sender's directive on the letter offered here recognizes the fact that the letter would be conveyed from the Sub Post Office to the main post office.

Debate among postal historians (Perry, Hahn et al) has focused on when the distinctive marking (Type I or II) was applied to letters. Some have argued that it is a press-printed impression applied to lettersheets prior to use and is, therefore, a carrier stamp. In support of the press-printed argument is the consistent orientation of the marking at the left side and at the same degree relative to the paper upon which it is impressed; it would be impossible to apply a hand-held striking device so consistently. Arguing against this press-printed theory are those who cite the effects of folds on the markings and impressions thru the paper, physical evidence that proves the marking was applied after the lettersheet had been folded. Our opinion is that the markings were applied after the letter was folded and given to the Sub Post Office, but that a mechanical device -- similar to a corporate seal -- was used to make the impression. Each letter, when inserted into the device along the guides, would receive the impression in the same relative position and orientation, not unlike a three-hole paper-punch device commonly used today. On the example offered here, the impression appears above the sender's note, but it does cover one word, showing that a) the sender did not write around an existing mark, and b) the person applying the mark was careful not to obscure the directions, except for the first word "The".

In summary, historical evidence supports the status of the Northern Liberties News Rooms Sub Post Office as an official carrier drop point for mail to the main Philadelphia post office. As such, we have positioned the Northern Liberties covers in the Philadelphia carrier section. However, physical evidence refutes the claim that these lettersheets were sold to patrons as stamped stationery to indicate prepayment of the carrier fee; the marking is better classified as an elaborate and mechanically-applied indication of letter handling.

Calvet M. Hahn records between 12 and 14 examples of Type I (some duplication of items is possible). Ex Hollowbush and Golden. With 2000 P.F. certificate

E. 10,000-15,000
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